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Learning and Leading with Habits of Mind, Chapter 2. Describing the Habits of Mind by Arthur L. Costa

Author: Edited by Arthur L. Costa and Bena Kallick

“Chapter 2. Describing the Habits of Mind.” Edited by Arthur L. Costa and Bena Kallick, Describing the Habits of Mind, Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, 2009, www.ascd.org/publications/books/108008/chapters/Describing-the-Habits-of-Mind.aspx.

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When we no longer know what to do we have come to our real work, and when we no longer know which way to go we have begun our real journey. The mind that is not baffled is not employed. The impeded stream is the one that sings.

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Jan 24
Paul H (Jan 24 2021 11:51AM) : Hand-in-Hand with Other Reading (some being done with students). more

Here at NowComment, our Room 407 students have been engaging with Margaret Wheatley’s “Willing to Be Disturbed” pieces. I think that the Berry quote here brings us to this sort of disturbance/disruption of both routine. . .and perhaps policies. What is blocking our stream? And…is it a song or a dirge?

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Wendell Berry

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This chapter contains descriptions for 16 of the attributes that human beings display when they behave intelligently. In this book, we refer to them as Habits of Mind. They are the characteristics of what intelligent people do when they are confronted with problems, the resolutions to which are not immediately apparent.

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Jul 20
Harry B (Jul 20 2021 9:03AM) : Suggestion more

It would be good to have an image as well attached to this description – instead of each Habit of Mind – I know this is a scholarly article – but this would also maybe appeal to students more with accompanying visuals

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Jul 21
Harry B (Jul 21 2021 5:45AM) : Images more

Yep saw these and these make the explanations more relatable – definitely enhance the meaning with the images that are provided!

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Jan 28
Savannah K (Jan 28 2021 11:16AM) : Description of how the habits of mind helps students more

Throughout this article Costa and Kallick describe in depth how essential it is that teachers are developing the learning power of students of all ages. In the article we see that both authors give a lot of concrete examples of how these learning dispositions have made a difference. These 16 habits presented to us are teaching kids, whether it is from their parents or teachers, habits that are performed by them on a day to day basis. The meaning behind this book is to help students get into the habit of behaving intelligently. A Habit of Mind is a pattern of intellectual behaviors that leads to productive actions. This is why we are trying to inform kids of these habits and consider what it means.
Finding some background information online, I noticed that their are four books in the ASCD ground-breaking Habits of Mind series. The volume we are discussing today presents a compelling case for why it’s more relevant than ever to align the missions of schools and classrooms to teaching students how to think and behave intelligently when they encounter problems and challenges in learning and in life. My thoughts behind the reading for the day is that all students of all ages should be learning and incorporating these 16 habits in their teachings.

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Jul 22
Jen R (Jul 22 2021 1:37PM) : I am ambivalent about choosing these attributes as signifiers of intelligence. My instinct is to agree, but I also am concerned about potential ableism and how neurodivergent thinking fits into this framework. more

There are certain habits of mind and ways of thinking that our society traditionally values and rewards. However, I’ve lately been thinking and learning about neurodivergence and understanding this not as a deficit but as a different way of thinking. I have not yet had time to really think through whether these 16 habits encompass that divergence, but it is something I am attuned to. And, in general, I become uncomfortable with attempts to definite “intelligence” in very specific ways that don’t account for different kinds of intelligence. I appreciate that the habits of mind are trying to focus on an approach to learning rather than narrow, discrete skills or content. But I also find myself uneasy.

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These Habits of Mind seldom are performed in isolation; rather, clusters of behaviors are drawn forth and used in various situations. For example, when listening intently, we use the habits of thinking flexibly, thinking about our thinking (metacognition), thinking and communicating with clarity and precision, and perhaps even questioning and posing problems.

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Jan 25
Harry B (Jan 25 2021 6:48PM) : Quote by Wendell Berry more

I love this quote- to me, it lets me and students know, they can do amazing things when they might feel they are lost, instead of feeling and despair, if we can train our minds to “roll with it” and see where we can take ourselves when we find ourselves not exactly where we expected to be, but also, teachers have to be willing to let students possibly end up with a different meaning of topics as well if they see students interpreting things differently than they imagined.

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Jan 28
Abigail G (Jan 28 2021 11:12AM) : "The mind that is not baffled is not employed..." more

The meaning I took from this portion of the Wendell Berry quote was if you are not confused, your mind is not working hard enough. If you think things are simple you are missing the complexity of life and its content. I made a text-to-text connection to this portion of the quote. We recently did and assignment over Wheatley Essays. One article titled “Willing to be Disturbed” and the other titled “The Works: Your Source to Being Fully Alive, Summer 2000”. These articles explain how opening up your mind to other peoples opinions can make your opinion richer or possibly change your viewpoint. This potion of the quote summarizes those articles perfectly. Everything is worth exploring whether it be someone else opinion of the complexity you find within life. Don’t be satisfied with the opinions and thoughts you have now, go out and find a source to challenge those thoughts and make your brain wonder.

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Jan 24
Paul H (Jan 24 2021 11:52AM) : Good to Know/Clarification more

I think the temptation is at times to take an itemized list and then work them separately. Quite possibilty assign or assess for them separately. These habits in synthesis allow for a little more room to talk about our employment/engagement of the Habit.

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Jul 22
Jen R (Jul 22 2021 1:41PM) : Referring back to my earlier concerns about ableism, this is an example. more

One characteristic of many (not all) autistic people is rigid thinking. But, they also tend to think and communicate with clarity and precision. Non-autistic people might respond to this clarity and precision by saying that they are not being flexible. So, in this scenario, these two habits of mind might be in contradiction. And it might be that an individual may possess one to a greater degree than, and possibly at the expense of, the other. Rather than looking at these as attributes every individual must possess, it might be helpful to see them as contributions individuals make to a greater whole.

Do not conclude, based on this list, that humans display intelligent behavior in only 16 ways. The list of the Habits of Mind is not complete. We want this list to initiate a collection of additional attributes. In fact, 12 attributes of "Intelligent Behavior" were first described in 1991 (Costa, 1991). Since then, through collaboration and interaction with many others, the list has been expanded. You, your colleagues, and your students will want to continue the search for additional Habits of Mind to add to this list of 16.

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Habits of Mind as Learning Outcomes

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Educational outcomes in traditional settings focus on how many answers a student knows. When we teach for the Habits of Mind, we are interested also in how students behave when they don't know an answer. The Habits of Mind are performed in response to questions and problems, the answers to which are not immediately known. We are interested in enhancing the ways students produce knowledge rather than how they merely reproduce it. We want students to learn how to develop a critical stance with their work: inquiring, editing, thinking flexibly, and learning from another person's perspective. The critical attribute of intelligent human beings is not only having information but also knowing how to act on it.

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Jul 19
Oluwatoyin I (Jul 19 2021 4:45PM) : Traditional learning settings more

Traditional setting for learning is slowly but surely giving way to new modes of learning that incorporates different learning styles. This is not to say any negative of traditional setting I definitely see the need to enhance what previously obtained finding new ways to do reach similar . The previous year has shown this even clearly as virtual classroom took over every level of learning.

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Jul 20
Harry B (Jul 20 2021 9:08AM) : In isolation more

I agree, higher thinking involves several things happening at the same time!

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Jul 20
Aniya M (Jul 20 2021 10:13PM) : Having a great knowledge is useless unless we are able to put it to use. It is important to see our knowledge as valuable and seek to make use of it and contribute to it as much as we can.
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Jul 22
Jen R (Jul 22 2021 1:42PM) : I think this is critical. I would add that we should look at the different ways that different students produce knowledge and build on that diversity.
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Jan 28
Ciara K (Jan 28 2021 8:15AM) : Traditional Setting more

In this sentence, it talks about a traditional setting in school. It is hard to imagine what this traditional setting would look like because we have gone so long now with seeing people through a screen or classrooms being empty. I would love to see a traditional setting again where everyone is together and not just through a screen but I do not know if this will happen before I graduate.

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Jan 28
Jasmine M (Jan 28 2021 10:49AM) : nostalgia more

nostalgia: a sentimental longing or wistful affection for the past, typically for a period or place with happy personal associations.
When I think of “traditional school” I reminisce about better days. Ciara, I believe you are right, I don’t think traditional will ever be the same. At least before we are long gone.

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Jan 24
Paul H (Jan 24 2021 11:54AM) : Connection to Reading: M. Colleen Cruz's RISK. FAIL. RISE: A Teacher's Guide to Learning from Mistakes (Heinemann 2021). more

This not knowing is not celebrated but rather met with consequence (usually detrimental and/or dire). Cruz’s book focuses upon the origins of mistakes and how to claim/own/address/move.

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Jan 24
Paul H (Jan 24 2021 11:55AM) : Pivot more

Replicate to Create.
Inculcation to Innovation.
Rote to Rendered.

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Jul 21
Khurram A (Jul 21 2021 1:45PM) : This is an important because at times memorizing can lead to success in a moment but later in life a lack of understanding can hurt oneself.
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Jan 28
Autumn F (Jan 28 2021 1:49PM) : Developing A Stance with Flexibility more

Habits of Mind is wanting to help students find a ‘critical stance’ within their work. While reading this, ‘flexibility’ caught my eye. Within this past year, our school has been forced to go online a number of times, so of course students are having to be flexible with their work, but this is not what I wanted to talk about. If teachers and the school would be more flexible with their work and not so much on turning things in on time, I would feel so much more obliged to do my work. But instead, I am on a time limit every single day balancing my school work, my job, and my mental health which overall has not been the best this past year. ‘Learning from another’s prospective’ caught my eye as well. Not everyone has a stable environment to be continuously sit at a desk and pump work out for a due date the following night. Again, this pulls into flexibility. If we were able to turn assignments in at our own pace and was more lenient with their students, I feel as that building a stance with my mind and work would be easier.

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What behaviors indicate an efficient, effective thinker? What do human beings do when they behave intelligently? Vast research on effective thinking, successful people, and intelligent behavior by Ames (1997), Carnegie and Stynes (2006), Ennis (1991), Feuerstein, Rand, Hoffman, and Miller (1980), Freeley (as reported in Strugatch, 2004), Glatthorn and Baron (1991), Goleman (1995), Perkins (1991), Sternberg (1984), and Waugh (2005) suggests that effective thinkers and peak performers have identifiable characteristics. These characteristics have been identified in successful people in all walks of life: lawyers, mechanics, teachers, entrepreneurs, salespeople, physicians, athletes, entertainers, leaders, parents, scientists, artists, teachers, and mathematicians.

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Jan 28
Paul H (Jan 28 2021 8:18AM) : Two Questions That Might Drive Student Performance or Bring Performance Up to Par more

What do the others do to achieve or to settle into some degree of comfort with the challenges presented to us each and every day? Inside or outside of school?

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Horace Mann, a U.S. educator (1796–1859), once observed that "habit is a cable; we weave a thread of it each day, and at last we cannot break it." In Learning and Leading with Habits of Mind, we focus on 16 Habits of Mind that teachers and parents can teach, cultivate, observe, and assess. The intent is to help students get into the habit of behaving intelligently. A Habit of Mind is a pattern of intellectual behaviors that leads to productive actions. When we experience dichotomies, are confused by dilemmas, or come face-to-face with uncertainties, our most effective response requires drawing forth certain patterns of intellectual behavior. When we draw upon these intellectual resources, the results are more powerful, of higher quality, and of greater significance than if we fail to employ such patterns of intellectual behavior.

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Jan 25
Harry B (Jan 25 2021 7:01PM) : Educational setting [Edited] more

To a degree, classrooms and the actual structure of classes need to revamped to help stop resisting against a new model of education. In having lessons and units focused around the concepts, principles, etc that are still unknown, it would be interesting how education could be giving more unknowns than known material and find connections and ways to bring an understanding to those topics that have been largely unknown. When I was in Mexico, the culture there allowed me to write, reflect, and ponder much more thoroughly because there was not an inherent push to rush as fast and accurately as possible. The culture of thinking critically was approached differently than in the U.S., and the same can be said of realizing the proper educational environment needs to allow for a huge shift of emphasis to achieve such a shift and change in the approach of the environment, students are learning in.

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Jan 28
Sarah T (Jan 28 2021 8:15AM) : Creating Habits more

It kind of intimidates me at how fast someone can pick up a habit. If it’s a good and healthy habit, it’s a great thing. Although more often than not, I feel as though one can pick up on the unhealthy habits easier. It makes me thing of softball. I can accidently pick up a bad batting habit and when I go to lessons, my coach will call me out for it. We’d end up taking weeks just to try to lessen the affects of this new habit.

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Jan 24
Paul H (Jan 24 2021 11:57AM) : HABITS OF MIND: DEFINED more

The operative word here seems to be a pattern vs. a part of the set.

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A Habit of Mind is a composite of many skills, attitudes, cues, past experiences, and proclivities. It means that we value one pattern of intellectual behaviors over another; therefore, it implies making choices about which patterns we should use at a certain time. It includes sensitivity to the contextual cues that signal that a particular circumstance is a time when applying a certain pattern would be useful and appropriate. It requires a level of skillfulness to use, carry out, and sustain the behaviors effectively. It suggests that after each experience in which these behaviors are used, the effects of their use are reflected upon, evaluated, modified, and carried forth to future applications. Figure 2.1 summarizes some of these dimensions of the Habits of Mind, which are elaborated in Chapter 3. The following sections describe each of the 16 Habits of Mind.

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Jul 22
Jen R (Jul 22 2021 1:44PM) : But why do we value one pattern of intellectual behaviors over another? Are there other patterns we are missing? And do we have a responsibility to make society more responsive to a greater diversity of intellectual behaviors?
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Jan 24
Paul H (Jan 24 2021 11:58AM) : Essential more

So much to say about the potential power and impact of reflection in the secondary classroom. Whole group. Individual. Teacher and student.

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Jan 27
Paul H (Jan 27 2021 7:00PM) : Room 407 Application more

Our students are preparing to draft a larger paper in the next few days. I’ve included the Habits of Mind as an attachment to their work folder. We’ll be using these as a means of reflection into the paper and out of the product.

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Figure 2.1. Dimensions of the Habits of Mind

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The Habits of Mind incorporate the following dimensions:

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  • Value: Choosing to employ a pattern of intellectual behaviors rather than other, less productive patterns.
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  • Inclination: Feeling the tendency to employ a pattern of intellectual behaviors.
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  • Sensitivity: Perceiving opportunities for, and appropriateness of, employing the pattern of behaviors.
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  • Capability: Possessing the basic skills and capacities to carry through with the behaviors.
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  • Commitment: Constantly striving to reflect on and improve performance of the pattern of intellectual behaviors.
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  • Policy: Making it a policy to promote and incorporate the patterns of intellectual behaviors into actions, decisions, and resolutions of problematic situations.
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Persisting

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Success seems to be connected with action. Successful people keep moving. They make mistakes, but they never quit.
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Jul 24
Maritza M (Jul 24 2021 11:33PM) : Success equals action more

It took me years to realize that it is never too late to pursue a career. I had to push myself out of the hole I was stuck in and work towards what I really want in life and that is to become an educator. No one but you can take the steps necessary to get to where you want. Here I am today continuing my education and so close to the end.

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Jan 28
Rachel B (Jan 28 2021 2:01PM) : Success and Action more

We can’t even begin to move towards what we desire without putting some work in. Our actions are driven by our want to succeed.

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Jul 19
mirseda K (Jul 19 2021 4:42PM) : We learn from our mistakes and those experiences make us stronger to keep going. [Edited] more

During all of the years, I have achieved things but also I have fallen. I was blamed for not being able to do that or this, but I talked to myself that mistakes and experiences teach us how to do things next time the appropriate method. Mistakes make us face our fears. I never thought I was able to handle alone my life in another country far away from my family. I moved to the USA alone when I was 25 and through my hard work, mistakes, during my moments of crying and laughing I was able to succeed and to achieve my goal.

Conrad Hilton
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Efficacious people stick to a task until it is completed. They don't give up easily. They are able to analyze a problem, and they develop a system, structure, or strategy to attack it. They have a repertoire of alternative strategies for problem solving, and they employ a whole range of these strategies. They collect evidence to indicate their problem-solving strategy is working, and if one strategy doesn't work, they know how to back up and try another. They recognize when a theory or an idea must be rejected and another employed. They have systematic methods for analyzing a problem, which include knowing how to begin, what steps must be performed, what data must be generated or collected, and what resources are available to assist. Because they are able to sustain a problem-solving process over time, they are comfortable with ambiguous situations.

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Jul 20
Aniya M (Jul 20 2021 10:25PM) : When I was a younger student, I didn't feel like there were a lot of problem-strategies taught to us. We either understood the sole strategy taught or were stuck in oblivion.
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Jul 22
Jen R (Jul 22 2021 1:46PM) : I think it can be equally important to know when to abandon a task or project. Persisting in a fruitless task is not valuable. Sometimes you might find you are more useful elsewhere, or someone else can do the task better.
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Jan 27
Paul H (Jan 27 2021 7:01PM) : A Word more

Not for nothing, but I love this word, “efficacious.”

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Jan 28
Emma H (Jan 28 2021 11:52AM) : Persisting more

I find that being persistent has always been on of my key attributes. Whether it is in school, sports, or extracurricular activities I have always been describes as persistent. Being a gymnast at a young age taught me to not give up when things get tough. To push through and persevere was the best way to accomplish your goals.

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Students often give up when they don't immediately know the answer to a problem. They sometimes crumple their papers and throw them away, exclaiming "I can't do this!" or "It's too hard!" Sometimes they write down any answer to get the task over with as quickly as possible. Some of these students have attention deficits. They have difficulty staying focused for any length of time; they are easily distracted, or they lack the ability to analyze a problem and develop a system, structure, or strategy of attack. They may give up because they have a limited repertoire of problem-solving strategies, and thus they have few alternatives if their first strategy doesn't work.

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Jan 28
Hanna O (Jan 28 2021 10:35AM) : Persisting more

I find this paragraph ture about myself. I often will sometimes “give up” or “get distracted” when I can not find a solution to the homework or if I do not understand the homework. Instead of trying to find help or find ways to get the help, such as asking a classmate or a teacher to elaborate on the homework I instead find myself pushing the homework to the side and coming back to it later. I would not necessarily say I have an attention deficit, I just sometimes put something aisde if I does not seem “easy” on the surface. One of my goals for 2021 is to take a dive and challenge myself, whether it is doing the hardest homework first or challeging myself at the gym.

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Feb 17
Kassidy R (Feb 17 2021 12:40AM) : Giving up more

I see this too often and I personally have urges sometimes t give up on a problem that takes too much effort to solve. I know many times in Calculus class I have to redo a problem 10 times before I am able to get it right on my own. I know that I could just look in the back of the book and write down an answer but the relief of finally getting it is such a perfect feeling. Too many students are missing out on this feeling of accomplishment. They lack the drive. Often times I think about the end to motivate myself in the beginning. Just thinking about how great it will feel to exercise my mind and feel success is enough to give me a little push.

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Jul 19
Oluwatoyin I (Jul 19 2021 4:59PM) : hard more

I definitely see this a lot personally I always get stuck trying to start tasks however when I get to it I end up enjoying the activity. Habits are difficult to break however taking on tasks as time goes by it gets easier. I put the goal in mind to give myself a jumpstart.

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Jul 21
Khurram A (Jul 21 2021 2:16PM) : I have given up on problems in math so many times, looking them up online or checking the back of the textbook. I realize now it is not about feeling you have to get the answer but approaching towards it. more

As teachers we should give students the tools to explore rather than make them feel there is no in-between correct and incorrect.

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Jul 24
Maritza M (Jul 24 2021 11:49PM) : More support for students more

I can relate to this sentence because this happens with my 14 year old son. During parent teacher conference, his teachers always speak highly about his participation in class but that he falls behind when it comes to completing assignments in class. To them it seems that he is always in a rush to complete an assignment when he has trouble understanding what it is asking. I believe that there are students who need extra support from teachers. Assignments should be broken down for them and teachers should encourage students to ask questions when they don’t understand something.

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Jul 22
Jen R (Jul 22 2021 1:51PM) : This is an example, in my opinion, of ableism. Variable attention can be a deficit, but it can also be an attribute. more

People with ADHD are often given tips and tricks for how to better focus their attention. They are trained to work against rather than with their brain’s natural way of functioning. While I generally agree that people with ADHD can benefit from learning how to focus their attention and manage their time, I think many also cause themselves unnecessary pain trying to work against their natural inclinations. People with ADHD are better described as having “variable attention” and can be astonishingly focused (“hyperfocused”) on tasks that engage and interest them. Instead of always trying to better focus on externally mandated tasks, we can also give people with ADHD the opportunity and means to engage with tasks that are meaningful to them. We can help them to leverage their ability to hyper-focus and to think creatively. But this requires starting from a standpoint of seeing ADHD as a divergent way of thinking and processing (with attendant strengths and challenges) rather than simply as a deficit.

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Jan 28
Sarah T (Jan 28 2021 8:21AM) : Failure Anxiety more

While I do agree with this, I believe they fail to mention the students who’s anxiety holds them back sometimes. It’s never “This is too hard, I can’t do it,” but more of “I feel like this isn’t good enough,” so they’ll do everything they can do avoid that feeling all together. Unfortunately, that sometimes results in no answer at all. Ultimately, I think educators should recognize that not all students lack skill, but simply fear what skills they have are not enough.

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Jan 28
Karisten B (Jan 28 2021 11:38AM) : Never good ENOUGH more

I agree. One piece this section fails to mention is the outcome that maybe it is not that students choose not to work but rather feel as if the work they do is not enough to secure the grade they would like. Just about everything we do is to keep ourselves from drowning, to get ourselves to the next assignment. Sometimes, the only answer we can come up with is none at all.

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Jul 22
Jen R (Jul 22 2021 1:59PM) : I really appreciate your comment Sarah! more

I think this lacks empathy and imagination for the many reasons a student might struggle to persist. I also think we should consider what we can do as educators to create conducive environments rather than simply looking to change the mindsets of students.

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Jul 19
Mary Anne H (Jul 19 2021 4:41PM) : They may also have a fixed mindset. They may not have been introduced to the growth mindset and think that if it's too hard then they're just not capable. They may give up as a default.

Managing Impulsivity

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Goal-directed, self-imposed delay of gratification is perhaps the essence of emotional self-regulation: the ability to deny impulse in the service of a goal, whether it be building a business, solving an algebraic equation, or pursuing the Stanley Cup.
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Daniel Goleman
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Effective problem solvers are deliberate: they think before they act. They intentionally establish a vision of a product, an action plan, a goal, or a destination before they begin. They strive to clarify and understand directions, they develop a strategy for approaching a problem, and they withhold immediate value judgments about an idea before they fully understand it. Reflective individuals consider alternatives and consequences of several possible directions before they take action. They decrease their need for trial and error by gathering information, taking time to reflect on an answer before giving it, making sure they understand directions, and listening to alternative points of view.

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Jan 28
Jessica O (Jan 28 2021 12:27PM) : Thinking before acting more

I feel like, as teenagers, this may be what we struggle with the most. Most of us don’t think twice about what we say or how it could hurt someones feeling. I myself have been working on that along with a load of other things for months and am very proud of how far I have come and the work I’ve done

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Jan 28
Rachel B (Jan 28 2021 1:58PM) : . more

Jessie, I agree. Teenagers have a habit of not understanding that people feel differently than them. The world is so small at this age, it’s hard to imagine people have different thoughts and triggers etc.

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Jul 20
Aniya M (Jul 20 2021 10:28PM) : Sometimes, I feel like I take really long in this stage and think about all the possible what ifs' before taking the next steps. I think that is an area that I can loosen up on a tiny bit.
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Jan 28
TJ B (Jan 28 2021 8:33AM) : Managing Impulsivity more

This habit is the one that I struggle with the most. While learning virtually I can have many impulses that can prohibit my education such as wanting to sleep in more or to go get coffee. At times, these impulses can have consequences to my learning. As the habit explains, I need to think about and access the consequences of an action before acting on it.

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Often, students blurt out the first answer that comes to mind. Sometimes they shout an answer, start to work without fully understanding the directions, lack an organized plan or strategy for approaching a problem, or make immediate value judgments about an idea (criticizing or praising it) before they fully understand it. They may take the first suggestion given or operate on the first idea that comes to mind rather than consider alternatives and the consequences of several possible directions. Research demonstrates, however, that less impulsive, self-disciplined students are more successful. For example, Duckworth and Seligman (2005) found

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Jan 28
Jon H (Jan 28 2021 11:53AM) : Jumping the gun [Edited] more

This sort of progression we have looked into more and more over the past few weeks. We read about the perception that the ideal thinker is one that already knew what to do, did not have to think further, and has already begun acting to solve the problem. We learned that it has not always been this way, but more recently in our culture the man chosen for a job first is the one who does not need to think about it. We have morphed thinking first and acting later into a sign of weakness. If you don’t move fast, you will eat the dust of your fellow man. Clearly, this mentality that is still pushed not only inhibits success, but even more importantly, it inhibits creativity.

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Jul 21
Khurram A (Jul 21 2021 2:39PM) : I think a balance needs to be found between allowing students to allow their enthusiasm to show with their "blurted out" answers as well as with helping them understand why it is important to take in different perspectives.
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Highly self-disciplined adolescents outperformed their more impulsive peers on every academic performance variable, including report-card grades, standardized achievement test scores, admission to a competitive high school and attendance. Self-discipline measured in the fall predicted more variance in each of these outcomes than did IQ, and unlike IQ, self-discipline predicted gains in academic performance over the school year. (p. 940)
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Listening with Understanding and Empathy

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Listening is the beginning of understanding. … Wisdom is the reward for a lifetime of listening. Let the wise listen and add to their learning and let the discerning get guidance.
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Jan 28
Maddy C (Jan 28 2021 10:57AM) : Wisdom is the reward [Edited] more

On one of the previous Now Comment articles, I commented something similar to this sentence. I said that if I talked to every one in the world, I am quite certain I would be the smartest person in the world. When you actually pay attention to what people are saying, you are not only giving them respect, you are learning from them! My grandpa always has insightful things to say, and I always learn something when I talk to him. Everyone you know knows at least one thing that you don’t. It is only when you truly listen to them that you learn it.

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Jul 19
Mary Anne H (Jul 19 2021 4:47PM) : I agree 100%. When we listen to other points of view, we LEARN. Even if we don't agree, seeing an issue from someone else's perspective is a learning experience.
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Jul 20
Priscilla A (Jul 20 2021 5:55AM) : Paying attention and listening to others more

Yes, paying attention to and listening to others while they speak is a sign of respect. And it is essential in all aspects of our lives, including school, relationships, and work.

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Proverbs 1:5
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Highly effective people spend an inordinate amount of time and energy listening (Covey, 1989). Some psychologists believe that the ability to listen to another person—to empathize with and to understand that person's point of view—is one of the highest forms of intelligent behavior. The ability to paraphrase another person's ideas; detect indicators (cues) of feelings or emotional states in oral and body language (empathy); and accurately express another person's concepts, emotions, and problems—all are indicators of listening behavior. (Piaget called it "overcoming egocentrism.")

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Jan 28
Makenzie H (Jan 28 2021 8:43AM) : Empathy and Understanding [Edited] more

I find this sentence particularly interesting. If the ability to empathize and understand others is a sign of high intelligence, this would mean that our actors, authors, and artists are some of our most brilliant minds. Despite this, many look down on these professions, telling people to shy away from them as these professions are “difficult” to be successful or not “real jobs.”

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Jul 20
Aniya M (Jul 20 2021 10:31PM) : Listening with empathy sounds like something very simple, yet can be so hard for us to do. If more of us were empathetic with one another, we would be in such a different place.
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Jul 21
Oluwatoyin I (Jul 21 2021 10:39PM) : Developing good listening skills more

indeed listening sounds easy , however it is one of the most difficult things to do. both young children, teenagers and adults tend to want to have an opinion of any topic or voice out our feelings. the ability to demonstrate empathy and understanding is borne out of a great level of listening skills. day to day the goal should be aiming to listen more to others and talk less that way we can better understand differences in opinion and enhance our acceptance of others.

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Jan 28
Fiorella P (Jan 28 2021 8:31AM) : Listening Patiently more

To understand listening, you have to listen patiently to what the other person has to say, even if you do not agree with it. It is important to show acceptance. Try to get a sense of the feelings that the speaker is expressing, and stay mindful of the emotional content being said as well as the literal meaning of the words. An empathic listener works to keep the speaker from becoming defensive. I think this is a really good skill that everyone should at least show some knowledge on.

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Jul 24
Maritza M (Jul 24 2021 11:59PM) : Effective Listening more

I agree with the statement you made about how we need to listen to others even if we do not agree with them. Everyone deserves to be heard. Effective listening makes it possible to get clear messages across and avoid any misunderstandings.

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People who demonstrate this Habit of Mind are able to see through the diverse perspectives of others. They gently attend to another person, demonstrating their understanding of and empathy for an idea or a feeling by paraphrasing it accurately, building upon it, clarifying it, or giving an example of it.

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Jan 28
Victoria H (Jan 28 2021 9:15AM) : Listening with Understanding and Empathy more

For me, this is one of the more difficult habits of mind. I have always seemed to struggle with understanding why people are upset in their particular situation and I guess that’s just because I was not in their shoes and did not know what they were feeling. I have also struggled with empathizing with others for the same reason. Without being in their situation, I just can’t understand the issue. It’s not every time, but it definitely happens often. It is something I really need to work on this year.

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Jul 22
Khurram A (Jul 22 2021 1:15PM) : This is something I quite agree with. It is very difficult to redirect someone's words because things such as semantics and tone can really disrupt someone's initial point.

Senge, Roberts, Ross, Smith, and Kleiner (1994) suggest that to listen fully means to pay close attention to what is being said beneath the words—listening not only to the "music" but also to the essence of the person speaking; not only for what someone knows but also for what that person is trying to represent. Ears operate at the speed of sound, which is far slower than the speed of light the eyes take in. Generative listening is the art of developing deeper silences in oneself, slowing the mind's hearing to the ears' natural speed and hearing beneath the words to their meaning.

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We spend 55 percent of our lives listening, but it is one of the least taught skills in schools. We often say we are listening, but actually we are rehearsing in our head what we are going to say when our partner is finished. Some students ridicule, laugh at, or put down other students' ideas. They interrupt, are unable to build upon, can't consider the merits of, or don't operate on another person's ideas.

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Jan 28
Jaclyn E (Jan 28 2021 11:07AM) : Listening more

People spend a little over half their life listening to other, but they are never taught the proper way. In schools they are just listening and learning and at home as well. People just catch on to what is going on around them and mimicking what they are doing so if they grow up around people who do not know how to show respect while listen then they will never know the difference between right and wrong.

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We want students to learn to devote their mental energies to another person and to invest themselves in their partner's ideas. We want students to learn to hold in abeyance their own values, judgments, opinions, and prejudices so they can listen to and entertain another person's thoughts. This is a complex skill requiring the ability to monitor one's own thoughts while at the same time attending to a partner's words. Listening in this way does not mean we can't disagree with someone. Good listeners try to understand what other people are saying. In the end, they may disagree sharply, but because they have truly listened, they know exactly the nature of the disagreement.

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Jul 22
Jen R (Jul 22 2021 2:20PM) : Listening more

I find this interesting because in English/rhetoric & composition, we spend a lot of time talking about the need to communicate to an intended audience. Writers and speakers are always asked to communicate with the audience in mind. But I don’t think we spend enough time asking listeners to listen with the speaker or writer in mind. We put all the burden on the speaker/writer and little on the listener. This is relevant, in my opinion, to debates about what constitutes “appropriate” language or proper usage conventions. Whose standards are we being asked to perform to and whose cultures, language practices and conventions are being marginalized? Focusing on listening and empathy seems important in this regard.

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Thinking Flexibly

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Of all forms of mental activity, the most difficult to induce even in the minds of the young, who may be presumed not to have lost their flexibility, is the art of handling the same bundle of data as before, but placing them in a new system of relations with one another by giving them a different framework, all of which virtually means putting on a different kind of thinking-cap for the moment. It is easy to teach anybody a new fact. … but it needs light from heaven above to enable a teacher to break the old framework in which the student is accustomed to seeing.
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Arthur Koestler
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An amazing discovery about the human brain is its plasticity—its ability to "rewire," change, and even repair itself to become smarter. Flexible people have the most control. They have the capacity to change their minds as they receive additional data. They engage in multiple and simultaneous outcomes and activities, and they draw upon a repertoire of problem-solving strategies. They also practice style flexibility, knowing when thinking broadly and globally is appropriate and when a situation requires detailed precision. They create and seek novel approaches, and they have a well-developed sense of humor. They envision a range of consequences.

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Jan 31
Benjamin L (Jan 31 2021 5:31PM) : The ability to rewire more

It is amazing what the human brain can do. This ability to change is what makes people have the most control. learning to use the brain and its abilities to the fullest is what makes these people flexible and in control

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Jul 19
Mary Anne H (Jul 19 2021 4:55PM) : children should be taught listening skills more

In resource room we often would ask each child to tell about their weekend (or some activity) and then ask each of the other children to tell us one thing the child that spoke did over the weekend. I think this is a great idea for general education classrooms especially in the early years. Although it can be time consuming with25 Plus children, I believe that listening is an important skill for children to learn. (and adults,lol)

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Jul 20
Aniya M (Jul 20 2021 10:34PM) : If we are actually rehearsing what we are going to say rather than actually listening, are we truly listening? Though it may not seem like it, in order to formulate an appropriate response, I guess we do listen somewhat.
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Jul 22
Jen R (Jul 22 2021 2:22PM) : This is a good point. more

This is a good point. I also think we should normalize pauses in conversation. We shouldn’t have to have instantaneous answers and responses. It should be okay to say, “wow, I hear that. Let me think about that for a minute.” When conversation is so fast paced, it can be hard to really listen and reflect before speaking. I think this contributes to the phenomenon of formulating a response while listening.

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Jul 22
Khurram A (Jul 22 2021 1:21PM) : As we age a lot of our ideals and mindsets on topics become more rigid, but we need to understand that they are not fully set. Although it becomes harder we must always be mindful to at the very least consider new perspectives.
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Flexible people can address a problem from a new angle using a novel approach, which de Bono (1991) refers to as "lateral thinking." They consider alternative points of view or deal with several sources of information simultaneously. Their minds are open to change based on additional information, new data, or even reasoning that contradicts their beliefs. Flexible people know that they have and can develop options and alternatives. They understand means-ends relationships. They can work within rules, criteria, and regulations, and they can predict the consequences of flouting them. They understand immediate reactions, but they also are able to perceive the bigger purposes that such constraints serve. Thus, flexibility of mind is essential for working with social diversity, enabling an individual to recognize the wholeness and distinctness of other people's ways of experiencing and making meaning.

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Jan 28
Jocelyn F (Jan 28 2021 8:28AM) : Lateral Thinking more

These types of people are able to look at and understand several different sources of information and these individuals are open to change. Our brains are more capable than we think and this allows for new techniques and ways of learning.

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Jul 20
Aniya M (Jul 20 2021 10:37PM) : Having a flexible mind allows us to fully engage with the world around us, recognizing that our perspectives and ways are not exclusive.
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Flexible thinkers are able to shift through multiple perceptual positions at will. One perceptual orientation is what Jean Piaget called egocentrism, or perceiving from our own point of view. By contrast, allocentrism is the position in which we perceive through another person's orientation. We operate from this second position when we empathize with another's feelings, predict how others are thinking, and anticipate potential misunderstandings.

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Another perceptual position is macrocentric. It is similar to looking down from a balcony to observe ourselves and our interactions with others. This bird's-eye view is useful for discerning themes and patterns from assortments of information. It is intuitive, holistic, and conceptual. Because we often need to solve problems with incomplete information, we need the capacity to perceive general patterns and jump across gaps of incomplete knowledge.

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Yet another perceptual orientation is microcentric, examining the individual and sometimes minute parts that make up the whole. This worm's eye view involves logical, analytical computation, searching for causality in methodical steps. It requires attention to detail, precision, and orderly progressions.

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Jan 28
Jarrett G (Jan 28 2021 11:38AM) : Macro to Micro. more

Transitioning from macrocentric thinking to more microcentric thinking is one of the most valuable skills found in intelligent people. It allows the individual to understand big patterns and substitute for unknown information, while also focusing on minor details. My brain connected this with the creation of art. An artist needs to be able to transition between these thinking systems when engaging in the artistic process.

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Flexible thinkers display confidence in their intuition. They tolerate confusion and ambiguity up to a point, and they are willing to let go of a problem, trusting their subconscious to continue creative and productive work on it. Flexibility is the cradle of humor, creativity, and repertoire. Although many perceptual positions are possible—past, present, future, egocentric, allocentric, macrocentric, microcentric, visual, auditory, kinesthetic—the flexible mind knows when to shift between and among these positions.

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Jul 22
Jen R (Jul 22 2021 2:24PM) : I really agree with this, but it also seems at odds with "managing impulsivity". I think this is another example of why these habits are often in a dynamic, but hopefully productive, tension with one another.
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Some students have difficulty considering alternative points of view or dealing with more than one classification system simultaneously. Their way to solve a problem seems to be the only way. They perceive situations from an egocentric point of view: "My way or the highway!" Their minds are made up: "Don't confuse me with facts. That's it!"

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Jan 28
Madelynn K (Jan 28 2021 10:57AM) : Only way more

There have been plenty of moments in the classroom where I was talking to someone and we came to a disagreement or making a decision, and they barely bothered to listen to me. Their idea or thought could have been organized poorly, yet they wouldn’t imagine changing their mind and doing something different. This is often a problem with group projects. A lot of students do not want to listen to anyone in general, let alone their partner’s ideas for a project when they have their own idea.

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Thinking About Thinking (Metacognition)

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When the mind is thinking it is talking to itself.
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Plato
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The human species is known as Homo sapiens sapiens, which basically means "a being that knows their knowing" (or maybe it's "knows they're knowing"). What distinguishes humans from other forms of life is our capacity for metacognition—the ability to stand off and examine our own thoughts while we engage in them.

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Jul 20
Robyn G (Jul 20 2021 9:01AM) : so basically we have to ability to know and think about ourselves separately from our reality.
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Occurring in the neocortex, metacognition, or thinking about thinking, is our ability to know what we know and what we don't know. It is our ability to plan a strategy for producing the information that is needed, to be conscious of our own steps and strategies during the act of problem solving, and to reflect on and evaluate the productiveness of our own thinking. Although inner language, thought to be a prerequisite for metacognition, begins in most children around age 5, metacognition is a key attribute of formal thought flowering at about age 11.

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The major components of metacognition are, when confronted with a problem to solve, developing a plan of action, maintaining that plan in mind over a period of time, and then reflecting on and evaluating the plan upon its completion. Planning a strategy before embarking on a course of action helps us keep track of the steps in the sequence of planned behavior at the conscious awareness level for the duration of the activity. It facilitates making temporal and comparative judgments; assessing the readiness for more or different activities; and monitoring our interpretations, perceptions, decisions, and behaviors. An example would be what superior teachers do daily: developing a teaching strategy for a lesson, keeping that strategy in mind throughout the instruction, and then reflecting upon the strategy to evaluate its effectiveness in producing the desired student outcomes.

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Intelligent people plan for, reflect on, and evaluate the quality of their own thinking skills and strategies. Metacognition means becoming increasingly aware of one's actions and the effect of those actions on others and on the environment; forming internal questions in the search for information and meaning; developing mental maps or plans of action; mentally rehearsing before a performance; monitoring plans as they are employed (being conscious of the need for midcourse correction if the plan is not meeting expectations); reflecting on the completed plan for self-evaluation; and editing mental pictures for improved performance.

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Jan 28
Meredith A (Jan 28 2021 11:57AM) : Relating Back to Margaret Wheatley [Edited] more

Last Friday our class read articles posted by Margaret Wheatley. In these articles she talked about the importance of listening to what others are saying and becoming more open to others’ thoughts. In today’s reading, this section talks about how the human brain works to solve problems. It was mentioned that some people do not use this ability, and how a reason could be that people are choosing not to take that extra time.

This section also talked about metacognition and provided an explanation of what it was. Stating how it means “becoming increasingly aware of one’s actions and the effect of those actions on others..” More examples were provided, but this line had me thinking about Margaret Wheatley’s articles. In today’s society many people will never agree with each other and this is okay. The problem is that those same people will begin to passionately despise each other because they do not see eye to eye. As a result, when one believes something the other will decide to believe the opposite. Only because the idea of agreeing with that person seems disgusting. I found that today’s reading was providing insight into why that was. Because many people choose not to achieve metacognition; therefore, they do not generate a “reflective consciousness.” While I’m sure there are other factors playing into our society’s inability to consider other people’s point of views. I thought it was interesting how this section provided some reasons behind it.

Do you think that people disagree because they aren’t capable of using their reflective consciousness?

Wheatley, Margaret J. Turning to One Another: Simple Conversations to
Restore Hope to the Future San Francisco: Berrett-Koshler Publishers, Inc.,
2002.
https://nowcomment.com/documents/251070

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Aniya M (Jul 20 2021 10:44PM) : Metacognition allows us think about our thinking and develop a greater awareness for the actions we plan to carry out, the way we plan to achieve such actions and the way they affect those around us.
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Interestingly, not all humans achieve the level of formal operations. As Russian psychologist Alexander Luria found, not all adults metacogitate. Although the human brain is capable of generating this reflective consciousness, generally we are not all that aware of how we are thinking, and not everyone uses the capacity for consciousness equally (Chiabetta, 1976; Csikszentmihalyi, 1993; Whimbey, Whimbey, & Shaw, 1975; Whimbey, 1980). The most likely reason is that all of us do not take the time to reflect on our experiences. Students often do not take the time to wonder why they are doing what they are doing. They seldom question themselves about their own learning strategies or evaluate the efficiency of their own performance. Some children virtually have no idea of what they should do when they confront a problem, and often they are unable to explain their decision-making strategies (Sternberg & Wagner, 1982). When teachers ask, "How did you solve that problem? What strategies did you have in mind?" or "Tell us what went on in your head to come up with that conclusion," students often respond, "I don't know. I just did it."

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We want students to perform well on complex cognitive tasks. A simple example might be drawn from a reading task. While reading a passage, we sometimes find that our minds wander from the pages. We see the words, but no meaning is being produced. Suddenly, we realize that we are not concentrating and that we've lost contact with the meaning of the text. We recover by returning to the passage to find our place, matching it with the last thought we can remember, and once having found it, reading on with connectedness. This inner awareness and the strategy of recovery are components of metacognition.

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Jan 28
Kylie R (Jan 28 2021 7:19PM) : Thoughts more

Sometimes I tend to skip over words while I think about other things such as what my day will look like, what I’m having for dinner that night, or other random things like that. Especially with books I don’t enjoy reading or a book I’m not interested in, I tend to get distracted. “While reading from a passage, we sometimes find that our minds wander from the pages. We see the words but no meaning is being produced.” This explains my problem exactly. I see the words on the page, but I do not read them.

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Jan 28
Anna W (Jan 28 2021 11:57AM) : Thinking about thinking more

I catch myself thinking about thinking on the daily. I usually catch myself doing this at practice or when doing homework or reading. The more the author talks about this idea and what goes on in our minds when it happens the more I relate to it because that is what happens with me also.

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Jul 22
Khurram A (Jul 22 2021 1:34PM) : Self-reflection in moments like this can help students better understand themselves and their study habits.
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Striving for Accuracy

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A man who has committed a mistake and doesn't correct it is committing another mistake.
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Confucius
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Whether we are looking at the stamina, grace, and elegance of a ballerina or a carpenter, we see a desire for craftsmanship, mastery, flawlessness, and economy of energy to produce exceptional results. People who value truthfulness, accuracy, precision, and craftsmanship take time to check over their products. They review the rules by which they are to abide, they review the models and visions they are to follow, and they review the criteria they are to use to confirm that their finished product matches the criteria exactly. To be craftsmanlike means knowing that one can continually perfect one's craft by working to attain the highest possible standards and by pursuing ongoing learning to bring a laserlike focus of energies to accomplishing a task.

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Jul 20
Aniya M (Jul 20 2021 10:49PM) : Striving for accuracy is a decision one makes to go above and beyond to achieve a high level of performance. High standards should not be pushed onto students, however, they should be reminded of their potential to meet such standards.
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These people take pride in their work, and they desire accuracy as they take time to check over their work. Craftsmanship includes exactness, precision, accuracy, correctness, faithfulness, and fidelity. For some people, craftsmanship requires continuous reworking. Mario Cuomo, a great speechwriter and politician, once said that his speeches were never done; it was only a deadline that made him stop working on them.

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Some students may turn in sloppy, incomplete, or uncorrected work. They are more eager to get rid of the assignment than to check it over for accuracy and precision. They are willing to settle for minimum effort rather than invest their maximum. They may be more interested in expedience rather than excellence.

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Jan 28
Karisten B (Jan 28 2021 12:04PM) : Investing in the Maximum more

As a dancer, everything we do revolves around one thing: technique. Every breath, body position,and muscle is used so specifically that one false move can set an entire movement off. In ballet specifically the first thing we learn is plie, which is the french equivalent to “to bend” or “bending.” It is a simple standing position that progresses to almost a squat. But that is not all. It starts with an upright, standing position, with just about every muscle from the feet up engaged. So what does that mean? Constant thoughts include, but are not limited to “turn out legs from hips, keep feet flat on ground,don’t force turnout, straighten legs but keep knees unlocked, pelvis under, and keep hips even.” While maintaining lower body strength, the upper body has similar techniques that are more related to posture. In the end, muscle memory is the most important part. Consistently good technique creates the accuracy we all want. Accuracy and consistency are what makes the best dancers of all styles.

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Jul 20
Robyn G (Jul 20 2021 9:03AM) : maybe also think about people who over work themselves either for academic treatment or something else also isn'tt healthy.
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Jan 28
Grahm K (Jan 28 2021 12:08PM) : Expediency more

Expediency is defined as “the quality of being convenient and practical despite possiby being improper or immoral.” In other words, If someone is expedient, they value convenience rather than quality of work.

Here, Costa and Kallick, are comparing “successful” people to “unsuccessful” people. They used a ballerina that strives for perfection in their craft that realizes they can always improve as a comparison to a successful person. And they used a student that turns in sloppy uncorrected work as a comparison to an unsuccessful person. I think this ties back to the beginning of the piece(Paragraph 7), where the authors said they were curious about how people/students behave when they don’t know an answer. These successful people reaize they don’t know everything about their craft, so they go out and try to perfect everything they do know t help them learn more, while these students that turn in sloppy work don’t care enough to try and get a correct answer.

Questioning and Posing Problems

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The formulation of a problem is often more essential than its solution, which may be merely a matter of mathematical or experimental skill. … To raise new questions, new possibilities, to regard old problems from a new angle, requires creative imagination and marks real advances.
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Albert Einstein
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One of the distinguishing characteristics of humans is our inclination and ability to find problems to solve. Effective problem solvers know how to ask questions to fill in the gaps between what they know and what they don't know. Effective questioners are inclined to ask a range of questions:

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  • What evidence do you have?
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  • How do you know that's true?
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  • How reliable is this data source?
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They also pose questions about alternative points of view:

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  • From whose viewpoint are we seeing, reading, or hearing?
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  • From what angle, what perspective, are we viewing this situation?
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Effective questioners pose questions that make causal connections and relationships:

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  • How are these (people, events, or situations) related to each other?
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  • What produced this connection?
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Sometimes they pose hypothetical problems characterized by "if" questions:

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  • What do you think would happen if … ?
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  • If that is true, then what might happen if … ?
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Inquirers recognize discrepancies and phenomena in their environment, and they probe into their causes:

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Jul 20
Aniya M (Jul 20 2021 10:55PM) : The habit of questioning things in the world around us allows us to be continuos learners. Inquiry allows us to develop more knowledge about a myriad of topics and a desire to learn more and more.
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  • Why do cats purr?
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  • How high can birds fly?
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  • Why does the hair on my head grow so fast, while the hair on my arms and legs grows so slowly?
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  • What would happen if we put the saltwater fish in a freshwater aquarium?
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  • What are some alternative solutions to international conflicts, other than wars?
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Some students may be unaware of the functions, classes, syntax, or intentions in questions. They may not realize that questions vary in complexity, structure, and purpose. They may pose simple questions intending to derive maximal results. When confronted with a discrepancy, they may lack an overall strategy to search for and find a solution.

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Applying Past Knowledge to New Situations

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I've never made a mistake. I've only learned from experience.
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Thomas A. Edison
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Intelligent humans learn from experience. When confronted with a new and perplexing problem, they will draw forth experiences from their past. They often can be heard to say, "This reminds me of …" or "This is just like the time when I …" They explain what they are doing now with analogies about or references to their experiences. They call upon their store of knowledge and experience as sources of data to support, theories to explain, or processes to solve each new challenge. They are able to abstract meaning from one experience, carry it forth, and apply it in a novel situation.

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Jan 29
Abigail G (Jan 29 2021 12:25AM) : Abigail (Room 407: Indiana) more

I relate a lot of things between the months of November-March to basketball. It takes up a majority of my time and is usually on my mind. Getting closer to sectionals and tournament time really relates to Striving for Accuracy. The quote presented here that reads, “A man who has committed a mistake and doesn’t correct it is committing another mistake.” This is very relatable. On the basketball court, when you make a mistake you must fix it immediately and make sure it doesn’t happen again. If you continue to make the same mistake it could cost you the game. Just a few days ago we had a team meeting where we talked about striving for accuracy but it wasn’t necessarily put in those words. We talked about fixing little mistakes that are made consistently, we talked about playing for something bigger than ourselves, but in all honesty the overview of the conversation was us putting our heads together to strive for accuracy. We currently have six seniors on our team who are playing for something. The tournament stats next week and if we lose a game we are done with basketball, some of us forever. We must strive for accuracy and reduce mistakes to make it as far as we are capable of making it in the tournament. We must take pride in the game and cut down on the mistakes that are made.

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Aniya M (Jul 20 2021 11:00PM) : Past knowledge and old experiences become the foundation for our new ones. We learn from the past and apply it in the present (most times).
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Jan 28
Isabella H (Jan 28 2021 9:53PM) : applying pas knowledge to new situations (room 407: Indiana) [Edited] more

Over the past couple years honestly I have learned this strategy can change the game, especially when it comes to the recruiting process in volleyball for me. Within the paragraph it states that “They are able to abstract meaning from one experience, carry it forth, and apply it in a novel situation.” Ive made many mistakes in that process, whether it is my response or my video. I have then learned from those past mistakes how to respond and almost know exactly what to say when approached by a coach. “I’ve never made a mistake. I’ve only learned from experience.” Thomas Edison

Too often, students begin each new task as if it were being approached for the first time. Teachers are dismayed when they invite students to recall how they solved a similar problem previously—and students don't remember. It's as if they had never heard of it before, even though they recently worked with the same type of problem! It seems each experience is encapsulated and has no relationship to what has come before or what comes after. Their thinking is what psychologists refer to as an "episodic grasp of reality" (Feuerstein et al., 1980); that is, each event in life is separate and discrete, with no connections to what may have come before or no relation to what follows. Their learning is so encapsulated that they seem unable to draw it forth from one event and apply it in another context.

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Jan 28
Hana P (Jan 28 2021 4:01PM) : memorizing vs. learning [Edited] more
I often find that after studying and cramming information into my head before a test, that after I get my good grade, I forget almost everything within a few months. School has taught us to memorize most information rather than really learn it and connect it to new lessons. Though I have learned a lot from school, I can’t recall everything that we’ve been “taught”. I’ve talked to other students who feel the same way. Throughout school, education feels more like getting good grades than learning.
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Thinking and Communicating with Clarity and Precision

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I do not so easily think in words. … After being hard at work having arrived at results that are perfectly clear … I have to translate my thoughts in a language that does not run evenly with them.
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Francis Galton, geneticist
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Language refinement plays a critical role in enhancing a person's cognitive maps and ability to think critically, which is the knowledge base for efficacious action. Enriching the complexity and specificity of language simultaneously produces effective thinking.

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Language and thinking are closely entwined; like either side of a coin, they are inseparable. Fuzzy, vague language is a reflection of fuzzy, vague thinking. Intelligent people strive to communicate accurately in both written and oral form, taking care to use precise language; defining terms; and using correct names, labels, and analogies. They strive to avoid overgeneralizations, deletions, and distortions. Instead, they support their statements with explanations, comparisons, quantification, and evidence.

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Aniya M (Jul 20 2021 11:04PM) : Thinking and communication mirror one another; if thinking is unclear, communication will also follow that same format. There have been times where my mind feels overloaded and communicating becomes a lot more loose and less accurate.
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We sometimes hear students and adults using vague and imprecise language. They describe objects or events with words like weird, nice, or OK. They name specific objects using such nondescriptive words as stuff, junk, things, and whatever. They punctuate sentences with meaningless interjections like ya know, er, and uh. They use vague or general nouns and pronouns: "They told me to do it," "Everybody has one," or "Teachers don't understand me." They use nonspecific verbs: "Let's do it." At other times, they use unqualified comparatives: "This soda is better; I like it more" (Shachtman, 1995).

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Gathering Data Through All Senses

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Observe perpetually.
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Nicholas L (Jan 28 2021 8:12AM) : Over lapping habits more

After reading through the article and watching the video, we can see that many of these habits overlap with eachother. Remaining open to continuous learning, and gathering data through all sense imply the same thing. Listening and learning from others to grow. The two quotes that follow these habits hint towards the same idea of gaining knowledge by observing , or remaining open to continuous learning.

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Henry James
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The brain is the ultimate reductionist. It reduces the world to its elementary parts: photons of light, molecules of fragrance, sound waves, vibrations of touch—all of which send electrochemical signals to individual brain cells that store information about lines, movements, colors, smells, and other sensory inputs.

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Intelligent people know that all information gets into the brain through sensory pathways: gustatory, olfactory, tactile, kinesthetic, auditory, and visual. Most linguistic, cultural, and physical learning is derived from the environment by observing or taking it in through the senses. To know a wine it must be drunk; to know a role it must be acted; to know a game it must be played; to know a dance it must be performed; to know a goal it must be envisioned. Those whose sensory pathways are open, alert, and acute absorb more information from the environment than those whose pathways are withered, immune, and oblivious to sensory stimuli.

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Jan 28
Natalie D (Jan 28 2021 11:34AM) : "to know a game it must be played" more

When I think about learning a game, I do know that by playing it I will learn it better. However; I never truly realized all I was doing when playing the game. I watch my own moves, as well as others (visual). I listen to the reactions of other players when certain moves are made (auditory). I also feel the part and pieces that go along with the game (tactile). I become aware of certain positions of the game pieces or my body (kinesthetic). All of these sensory pathways allow me to better understand the best ways to play the game.

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The more regions of the brain that store data about a subject, the more interconnection there is. This redundancy means students will have more opportunities to pull up all those related bits of data from their multiple storage areas in response to a single cue. This cross-referencing of data strengthens the data into something that's learned rather than just memorized (Willis, 2007).

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Jul 22
Jen R (Jul 22 2021 2:30PM) : Not sure about this. more

Again, I think there is a trade off. People who are blind or deaf often develop an acuity of their other senses that is far greater than that of a sighted or hearing person. So I’m not sure it’s accurate to say that someone able to use all their senses is at an inherent advantage in intelligence over someone who is not. Instead, I’d think about the different ways people absorb knowledge and how to balance the tradeoffs.

By way of personal example, I recently learned that I have a rare condition in which I cannot produce mental visual images. I only recently learned that other people literally see things in their mind’s eye. I do not. This is clearly a deficit in some ways and I feel the loss of it now that I know others have this ability. At the same time, it goes a long way to explaining my intense presence in the moment, my constant narration of events and the scene around me, and the rich vocabulary I’ve developed. Things that other people see in pictures in their mind, I see in words that feel so real that I could touch, smell and see them. I’ve cultivated a different kind of intelligence as a result, but I would not say it is lesser.

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We are learning more and more about the impact of the arts and music on improved mental functioning. Forming mental images is important in mathematics and engineering; listening to classical music seems to improve spatial reasoning. Social scientists use scenarios and role playing; scientists build models; engineers use CAD-CAM; mechanics learn through hands-on experimentation; artists explore colors and textures; and musicians combine instrumental and vocal music.

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Some students, however, go through school and life oblivious to the textures, rhythms, patterns, sounds, and colors around them. Sometimes children are afraid to touch things or get their hands dirty. Some don't want to feel an object that might be slimy or icky. They operate within a narrow range of sensory problem-solving strategies, wanting only to describe it but not illustrate or act it, or to listen but not participate.

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Jul 20
Aniya M (Jul 20 2021 11:11PM) : It is important to both learn and be taught how to interpret and experience the world around us with our senses. In doing so, we are able to take advantage of the knowledge we gain from such experiences.
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Creating, Imagining, Innovating

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The future is not some place we are going to but one we are creating. The paths are not to be found, but made, and the activity of making them changes both the maker and the destination.
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John Schaar, political scientist
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All human beings have the capacity to generate novel, clever, or ingenious products, solutions, and techniques—if that capacity is developed (Sternberg, 2006). Creative human beings try to conceive solutions to problems differently, examining alternative possibilities from many angles. They tend to project themselves into different roles using analogies, starting with a vision and working backward, and imagining they are the object being considered. Creative people take risks and frequently push the boundaries of their perceived limits (Perkins, 1991). They are intrinsically rather than extrinsically motivated, working on the task because of the aesthetic challenge rather than the material rewards.

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Jul 20
Aniya M (Jul 20 2021 11:14PM) : A creative person is constantly thinking about ways they can achieve goals and actions while taking into account their objective rather than their obstacle.
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Creative people are open to criticism. They hold up their products for others to judge, and they seek feedback in an ever-increasing effort to refine their technique. They are uneasy with the status quo. They constantly strive for greater fluency, elaboration, novelty, parsimony, simplicity, craftsmanship, perfection, beauty, harmony, and balance.

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Students, however, often are heard saying "I can't draw," "I was never very good at art," "I can't sing a note," or "I'm not creative." Some people believe creative humans are just born that way and that genes and chromosomes are the determinants of creativity.

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Jan 28
Adren C (Jan 28 2021 9:35PM) : Some humans aren't born creative more

While I can see where many people would come from when saying genes have a big role in how a person comes out, it also has to do with how they may have grown up. In most,but not all cases, the environment contributes a great factor toward creativity. A more excepting environment can let creative genes shine.

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Jul 22
Khurram A (Jul 22 2021 1:44PM) : Although this is true to a slight degree, we should always put the mindset in our students that we can reach towards a level of creativity no matter how old or skillful one is.

Responding with Wonderment and Awe

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The most beautiful experience in the world is the experience of the mysterious.
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Albert Einstein
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Describing the 200 best and brightest of USA Today's All USA College Academic Team, Tracey Wong Briggs (1999) states, "They are creative thinkers who have a passion for what they do." Efficacious people have not only an "I can" attitude but also an "I enjoy" feeling. They seek intriguing phenomena. They search for problems to solve for themselves and to submit to others. They delight in making up problems to solve on their own, and they so enjoy the challenge of problem solving that they seek perplexities and puzzles from others. They enjoy figuring things out by themselves, and they continue to learn throughout their lifetimes. One efficacious person is chemist Ahmed H. Zewail, a Nobel Prize winner, who said that he had a passion to understand fundamental processes: "I love molecules. I want to understand why do they do what they do" (Cole, 1999).

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Some children and adults avoid problems and are turned off to learning. They make such comments as "I was never good at these brain teasers," "Go ask your father; he's the brain in this family," "It's boring," "When am I ever going to use this stuff," "Who cares," "Lighten up, teacher; thinking is hard work," or "I don't do thinking!" Many people never enrolled in another math class or other "hard" academic subject after they weren't required to in high school or college. Many people perceive thinking as hard work, and they recoil from situations that demand too much of it.

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We want students to be curious, to commune with the world around them, to reflect on the changing formations of a cloud, to feel charmed by the opening of a bud, to sense the logical simplicity of mathematical order. Intelligent people find beauty in a sunset, intrigue in the geometric shapes of a spider web, and exhilaration in the iridescence of a hummingbird's wings. They marvel at the congruity and intricacies in the derivation of a mathematical formula, recognize the orderliness and adroitness of a chemical change, and commune with the serenity of a distant constellation. We want students to feel compelled, enthusiastic, and passionate about learning, inquiring, and mastering (Costa, 2007).

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Jan 28
Anna W (Jan 28 2021 11:27AM) : Experience of the mysterious (Room 407:Indiana) [Edited] more

Where I am in my life I always want to experience new mysteries. For instance, this past week I have been trying to find a new show that brings forth this mysteriousness. For example, when you watch a new show you are always on the edge of your seat wondering what is going to happen to the characters and the plot but when you rewatch a show you do not get to experience the feelings of wonderment and awe. That is why I am always looking for new things to do or try so I can re experience the feelings that come with mysteriousness.

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Feb 25
Isabella H (Feb 25 2021 10:24AM) : response to Anna more

I too always want to experience new mysteries. This reminds me of a show we both watch, The vampire Diaries. Even though we have finished it we keep re-watching it to pick up on new clues we did not the past time watching it. We are re-experiencing the feelings that come with mysteriousness.

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Jul 20
Robyn G (Jul 20 2021 9:07AM) : I agree. Like try harder classes or eploring new hobbies.This shows curiosity in and out of the classroom.
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Jul 22
Khurram A (Jul 22 2021 1:45PM) : No matter what they do, if a student can find a passion in something we should encourage that so that they can rise on their own merits and pave their own journey in a way that works with their learning style and preferences.

Taking Responsible Risks

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There has been a calculated risk in every stage of American development—the pioneers who were not afraid of the wilderness, businessmen who were not afraid of failure, dreamers who were not afraid of action.
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Jan 31
Benjamin L (Jan 31 2021 5:35PM) : (Room 407: Indiana) more

After reading this article, it is noticeable that I take responsible risks. Playing poker always involves risks but trusting myself and taking a little risk, I able to win.