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EDU 807 Master - Week 2 - Triple E Framework - Summer 2018 - Group 1

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Triple E Framework

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About the Triple E Framework

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Created by Dr. Liz Kolb, University of Michigan

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http://www.tripleeframework.com/​

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What is the Triple E?

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The Triple E Framework attempts to define what it should look like, sound like and feel like to integrate technology tools into teaching in order to meet and exceed learning goals.

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The framework is based on three levels, Engagement in learning goals, Enhancementof learning goals, and Extension of learning goals.

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While these terms are often used interchangeably, they are distinct and different.

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The Triple E Framework defines each term and show examples of what makes each one unique and measurable.

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The Triple E Framework is based on a considerable amount of research about what works and does not work when it comes to technology in learning.

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In particular it emphasizes...

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  • Pragmatism: Active, social, creative, and authentic learning (Dewey, 1897)
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  • Focus on the learning goals (Linnenbrink &Pintrich, 2003)
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  • The importance of time-on-task active engagement (Wartella, 2015)
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  • The quality of technology use rather than quantity (Wenglinsky, 2006; Wenglinsky, 2008)
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  • Technology itself does not lead to positive effects in student learning but can be an ‘intellectual and social amplifier’ which can help make good schools better but also can increase problems at less successful schools when not implemented strategically. (Warschauer, 2006)
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  • The type of use--avoiding "drill and practice" which can have negative effects on learning outcomes and integrating more real world problem-solving and creating (Vaala et al., 2015)
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  • Helping students connect existing knowledge with new knowledge (Wartella, 2015)
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  • Co-use of technology devices and software (Darling-Hammond et al., 2014)
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  • Social aspect of learning through technology tools (Vaala et al., 2015; Guernsey, 2012)
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  • Value-added strategies such as promoting student self-reflection, self-assessment, and self-explanation (Means et al. 2009)
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Read more about the research and links here

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The Triple E Framework was developed in 2011 by Professor Liz Kolb at the University of Michigan, School of Education. The Triple E was created to fill a gap that has been pervasive in educational technologies---How to effectively integrate technology tools in K-12 learning so they have a positive impact on student achievement and learning outcomes.

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WHY Triple E? The research on technology and learning over the past decade is fairly clear, technology should be integrated based on what we already know about good teaching and pedagogical practices. Dating back to the late 19th century, the foundation of current teaching practices is based on the work of pragmatism. Pragmatists like John Dewey (1897) pushed for learning to be embedded in the student's authentic everyday lives, socially constructed knowledge, active/hands-on learning and full of choice. Since the early 1990s Research has found that educational technology with a "drill and practice" approach often has no effects on learning or cognition. Yet, most technology tools created for education are still drill and practice and in the lower-order of Blooms Taxonomy.

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Despite media often claiming a new piece of technology as a way to "revolutionize" learning, that is almost never the case. The Triple E framework takes this fallacy of technology as the magic bullet learning into account, and allows teachers to become critical consumers of making mindful choices around technology tools in their teaching. It is a simple framework, based on research, that helps educators create lessons that allow students to use technology to meet and add value to learning goals as active, social, creative learners, in authentic ways.

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How Triple E is Different than other Tech Integration Models
Some educators tend to be haphazard with technology tools, often trying new hardware or software because it's shiny or new, dismissing older technologies with an assumption that older=poor technology use. Today, few educators would argue that technology is a TOOL to help students reach learning goals. So how do educators measure a tools ability to help students reach learning goals? There are a number of frameworks that teachers use for integrating technology (SAMR, ADDIE, TIMS, TPACK), while all of them have benefits, none directly focus on how technology helps students achieve learning goals. Most frameworks focus on how technology substitutes for traditional tools or if the technology use is creative, but not if the tools were able to enhance or extend the learning goals. As the U.S. has become focused on standards (CCSS, NEXTGEN...etc) and standardizing learning, making sure that students are using their time to meet learning goals is even more vital when integrating technology. This is where the Triple E Framework can fill this void.

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Triple E Level 1: Engaged Learning

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Engagement is a minimum standard of technology integration.

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Often by putting a piece of technology in front of the students or in their hands, they become interested or "engaged" in the activity.

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However, we can look a little more deeply at engagement by considering if the technology is not just capturing the interest of the student, but if it is actually engaging them actively in the content (not just the bells and whistles of the software).

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It is important to look for "time on task" engagement.

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In addition, engagement should include social or co-use of the technology tool rather than isolated learning with a tool.

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Students should be working together through the tool (eg...synchronous collaboration) or with the tool (eg...in pairs or groups with a device).

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Below are three questions to ask when measuring for engagement in learning goals through a technology tool.

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The technology tool helps students engage in the learning goals

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  1. Does the technology allow students to focus on the task of the assignment or activity with less distraction?
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  3. Does the technology motivate students to start the learning process?
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  5. Does the technology cause a shift in the behavior of the students, where they move from passive to active social learners (co-use)?
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Research to Support Active Engagement

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​Engagement in technology-enhanced lessons does not necessarily correlating with achievement.

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  • Studies on engagement uncovered that while students may be physically present and appear to be actively involved in using the technology tools, in reality they might still be cognitively disengaged from the learning goals (Linnenbrink &Piintrich, 2003).
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Create an environment of active time-on-task learning (learn more about time-on-task engagement)

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  • The tool should help focus student’s attention on the learning goals and the task at hand and not distract from it (Wartella, 2015).
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  • Active learning is when students are actively focused on the learning goals and not just “busy” doing what looks like learning. “active learning occurs when children are “minds-on”—that is, engaged in thinking, reflecting, and effortful mental activity…swiping, tapping, and physically engaging with an app is not the same as “minds-on” activity. “ Ellen Wartella (2015)
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Creating an environment of co-use (social)

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  • A recent report by the Joan Ganz Cooney Center (Vassy et al., 2015) emphasized the importance of social in learning with technology devices for children.
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  • Researchers have promoted the ability to connect with others through media or while using media together as key ways children deepen their learning (e.g., Hirsh-Pasek et al., 2015; Guernsey,2012; Takeuchi & Stevens, 2011).
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  • “joint media engagement, and socially interactive learning more generally, offer young children an environment that can help them learn through the Vygotskian notion of scaffolding, or extending children’s learning beyond what they would learn left on their own.” Ellen Wartella (2015)
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Engagement Checklist

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  1. Does the technology allow students to focus on the task of the assignment or activity with less distraction? Students are focused on the task because the software is helping them create the code that represents their content learning goals (characterization, setting, plot..etc). There are no games or rewards at the end of using the software that distract from the process of learning.
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  3. Does the technology motivate students to start the learning process? Students are interested to connect their code to their complex novel. They are not just "swiping through" their iPad, rather they are carefully planning a code that is representative of their goal so they can see the physical results in the programmable ball that moves.
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  5. Does the technology cause a shift in the behavior of the students, where they move from passive to active social learners (co-use)?Students are working in groups co-using the devices (rather than 1 device per child). Collaboration and constructing knowledge together.
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Triple E Level 2: Enhanced Learning

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Technology can create opportunities for students to move beyond engagement in content, where the technology may simply be replacing a traditional method of instruction, but it is not actually doing anything different than the traditional method was doing.

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We call this the "value-added" aspect of technology.

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Value-added enhancement of learning through technology is when the tool is somehow aiding, assisting, scaffolding learning in a way that could not easily be done with traditional methods.

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This is the level where learning can become personalized and more relatable to the learner.

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This is when technology is really starting to change how learning occurs to make it more meaningful to the learner.

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Below are three questions that should be asked when measuring for enhancement of learning through technology tools.

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  1. Does the technology tool aid students in developing or demonstrating a more sophisticated understanding of the content? (creates opportunities for creation/production over consumption)
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  3. Does the technology create scaffolds to make it easier to understand concepts or ideas?
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  5. Does the technology create paths for students to demonstrate their understanding of the learning goals in a way that they could not do with traditional tools?
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Research to Support Enhanced Learning

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Application Use Should Avoid "Drill and Practice"

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  • "Drill and practice" software has not been successful in showing positive achievements for student learning outcomes (Wenglinsky, 1998).
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Encourage use of technology to help students explore, create and problem-solve

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  • Digital technology use for creating and exploring rather than Drill and Practice, have been found to positively effect student achievement while drill and practice has had negative effects on student achievement scores (National Association of Educational Progress, NAEP via Wenglinsky, 2006).
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  • Supporting or scaffolding technology that creates opportunities for children deepen their learning through social use (e.g., Hirsh-Pasek et al., 2015; Guernsey,2012; Takeuchi & Stevens, 2011).
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  • Value-added strategies such as promoting student self-reflection, self-assessment, and self-explanation through technology can enhance learning outcomes (Means et al. 2009).
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Encourage Quality over Quantity

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  • Studies are finding that the quality of work done with computers is much more important to determining student achievement than the quantity of time spent with devices (Wenglinsky, 2006).
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Enhancement Checklist

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  1. Does the technology tool aid students in developing or demonstrating a more sophisticated understanding of the content? (creates opportunities for creation/production over consumption) By students using technology to research their road trip (using authentic websites to reserve hotels, pay for meals, gas...etc), they are able to assess their understanding of rates, proportions, percents in mathematics with authentic data that connects to the real world (rather than a worksheet). They are using their higher order thinking cognitive skills of analysis, creativity and evaluation.
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  3. Does the technology create scaffolds to make it easier to understand concepts or ideas? The students were able to use technology to better see and experience the connections between math, geography, and social studies in everyday life. They are no longer isolated workbooks or class activities.
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  5. Does the technology create paths for students to demonstrate their understanding of the learning goals in a way that they could not do with traditional tools? There was a lot of choice available because the students could select where to go, what websites and digital resources to use to help aid in their development of the trip. Creation, critical thinking, and construction were all important skills that were enhanced with the aid of technology tools.
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Triple E Level 3: Extended Learning

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Educators are always looking for ways to connect student learning to the authentic world.

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If technology can somehow aid or enhance the ability to create these real-world connections, than learning is being extended outside of the classroom walls and into student's everyday lives.

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In addition, another piece of extension are non-content related skills (often called "soft skills").

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In the digital age, educators are often looking to help their students to start developing grit and P21 skills, that many employers are asking for.

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In order to measure if technology tools are extending learning goals, the following questions can be used for analysis.

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  1. Does the technology create opportunities for students to learn outside of their typical school day?
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  3. Does the technology create a bridge between school learning and everyday life experiences?
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  5. Does the technology allow students to build skills, that they can use in their everyday lives?
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Research that Supports Extension

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Avoiding technology that only provides individual isolated content knowledge

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  • Studies have found that reinforcing knowledge or giving isolated content knowledge did not lead to student achievement gains. For example secondary students using technology for content-specific tasks (such as reading or evaluating primary documents in history class) had no correlation on student achievement, but students using computers for more generic academic tasks in school had positive correlation to student achievement. (Wenglinsky, 2006)
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Connecting the student's CURRENT real world with school learning

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  • "Education is not a preparation for life; education is life itself." (Dewey, 1897)
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  • Researchers believe that technology tools need to encourage meaningful learning, where the technology is extending the learning from student’s preexisting knowledge and helping them create new knowledge (Wartella, 2015).
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Extension Checklist

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  1. Does the technology create opportunities for students to learn outside of their typical school day? Students are able to connect with other students to compare and contrast their own lives with those of students in Massachusetts. They are collaborating in real time and choosing tools to help them better connect with their individual pen pals (such as Google Translator or Google Documents)
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  3. Does the technology create a bridge between school learning and everyday life experiences? Students learn to use to technology to connect with other people that are different from them, learn from them and share what they know.
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  5. Does the technology allow students to build skills, that they can use in their everyday lives? Students are learning to use digital tools to build positive digital footprints and make new friends.
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Karen McKinley an ELA curriculum specialist from Warren County Educational Service Center in Lebanon, Ohio shared this user friendly rubric that she designed based on the Triple E Framework.

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She gave permission for other educators to use and share the chart with teachers in their districts.

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Thank you Karen!

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DMU Timestamp: January 02, 2017 19:32

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Apr 28
Troy Hicks (Apr 28 2018 2:39PM) : Reading Task for Triple E Framework more

For this week, please look for a segment in each text where you can reply to the following:

What does this framework for using technology in education assume about teachers and teaching?

What does this framework for using technology in education assume about students and learning?

Please offer at least one comment related to the assumptions about teaching, as well as at least one comment on each document related to the assumptions about learning (2 initial comments). Then, please reply to at least two different classmates on one of their comments (2 responses).

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May 7
Susan Byers (May 07 2018 7:15PM) : Learning must always be moving, deepening, relevant. more

The Triple E framework assumes that learning must be moving, deepening and relevant. These are the theories of our era…at least, they are the theories you read about in teacher education textbooks, in research, and at conferences. Reality in many classrooms may not be so compact or have the desired momentum. Some teachers just try to get through the day, just want their students to pass, just need to keep administrators happy. They have scripted curricula and creativity takes a back seat.

I do not like this reality. I, too, want education to move, be relevant, and to be deep. Our program here at CMU is certainly that way. Anything less would make me sleepy and perhaps resentful.

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May 8
Troy Hicks (May 08 2018 7:38PM) : Glad to know that we are moving in the right direction! more
I think that you raise an important point, Susan, about the ways in which educational technology can be used, often poorly, and the ideas that we are trying to express through the experiences in the DET.

The further question, then, would be to consider whether or not we are fully meeting those goals, and, subsequently, actually using technology in the ways Dr. Kolb describes. I’ll be curious to hear your continually evolving thoughts on this matter.

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May 10
Susan Byers (May 10 2018 10:08PM) : DET is engaged, enhanced and extended. more

We engage in conversation, in research, in exploring and application, in synthesis, and in creating new things (doing a webinar will be new for me!), all using technology. I’d say we are on track!

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May 11
Michelle Claypool (May 11 2018 11:56AM) : Reply more

Hi Susan,
I like that you said “learning must be moving, deepening, and relevant.” What a great way to put it! I feel like mainly the responsibility of this is the teachers to keep the students moving and deepen their understanding of topics. However, some of the responsibility falls on the students, as well. They have to have the desire and motivation to be able to deepen their own understanding and look for ways to make the topics relevant for themselves.
You are right that some teachers lack creativity and they just get through the day by doing the same old thing. I really do not get that. If a teacher is not excited about teaching than how can they expect the students to be excited about learning?

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May 12
Rebekah Redmer (May 12 2018 6:34PM) : Evolving (using Michelle's word from our class this week:) more

Susan, I do think education is moving faster than we perceive it to be. The innovative programs available to students are exploding and EdTech is providing a pathway in some cases, causing educators to evaluate all of the archaic systems in place. In the past 5 years, our state has provided opportunity for schools to look at innovation and function outside of traditional school systems. It is exciting times!

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May 13
Susan Byers (May 13 2018 12:10PM) : Michigan is leading the way! more

Your experience with the exciting program in Michigan is inspiring. THEY are moving quickly. The rest of us can learn from them, catch up and keep up.

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May 7
Michelle Claypool (May 07 2018 7:55PM) : Teachers framework more

I think that the framework for using technology in education assumes that the teacher understands how to use it correctly and better than the students. I feel like if, as a teacher, you are introducing new technology into the classroom, that you really have to know the ins and outs of the technology. If students cannot understand it quickly and pick it up easily, they are going to not want to do it. So, the explanation that the teacher provides is going to make-or-break the success of that technology.

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May 10
Susan Byers (May 10 2018 10:11PM) : It will make it--eventually! more

When our college went to an ePortfolio (using ViaLiveText), we jumped in with very little training. The students learned it faster than we did and now teach each other. I was the faculty representative trying to get this momentum going, and I was the one who had a tiny bit of knowledge, so I also received the complaints from the students. That lasted a year. We’re fine now. I’m glad we made the move, even though I had to manage the grumbling. I learned alongside the students. I don’t recommend that process, but it worked for us.

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May 11
Michelle Claypool (May 11 2018 11:59AM) : Reply more

I think that by not having proper training it puts unfair pressure on the teachers though. Also, on the students, if it is involving them. I realize that it works out over time, but it would take less time and teachers would be more efficient if proper training was involved.
Many of the schools in my area were getting grants for huge technology programs. However, once they got the equipment, the teachers were ill-prepared and did not understand what they were supposed to be doing. Most of them just did it the old way because that is what they were comfortable with.

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May 13
Susan Byers (May 13 2018 12:11PM) : Yes, training. more

Training is so important. And for some of us, it takes more than one afternoon of training to make it stick!

What I’m enjoying about the DET program is the focus on getting acquainted with the frameworks. That needs to be the first step…not a large grant and then equipment that sits there.

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May 12
Rebekah Redmer (May 12 2018 6:27PM) : Tech training more

I agree with you Michelle. It is so important to provide comprehensive training for teachers, yet the support throughout the first year of implementation is just as important. For the most part, teachers are extremely adaptable and part of the training must identify for them how tool will support learning for their students, and may aid with workload as well. Great point Michelle!

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May 7
Michelle Claypool (May 07 2018 8:01PM) : Student Framework more

I think that this framework assumes that students are going to be engaged in the new technology. It assumes that students do not want to do it the “old way” and that they are going to love it because it involves technology. I think that it, also, assumes that they are going to not dread working with the new technology and that it is going to be something that they want to do. Sometimes as adults, I feel like we get in this mode where just because it is techie we assume students will love it. That is definitely not the case. I even see this with my own kids, when I think they will really like something and they never use it. Students have to be able to apply what they are learning in technology outside of the classroom and use it to enhance their current practices, be more efficient at what they are doing, and help transform their way of thinking.

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May 8
Troy Hicks (May 08 2018 7:39PM) : Technology/motivation more

Thanks, Michelle, for raising this point about technology and motivation. This is definitely one of the contentions that Kolb is pushing upon, helping us think more clearly about what we mean when we say “engagement” and why we would want students to spend time using technology first place. I’ll be curious to learn more about the ways that you make these types of decisions for your own students in the lab.

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May 12
Rebekah Redmer (May 12 2018 6:21PM) : Triple E Framwork more

The triple E framework assumes teachers are grounded in good solid pedagogical practices, and the technology tools layer into those practices. It might take a newer teacher (within the first 3 years) some time to gain confidence in their craft before able to add meaningful technology tools to Engage, Enhance & Extend learning. There is an assumption teachers have the time to investigate and properly vet technological tools. With little time provided for PD altogether, mainly structured around state-mandated training, it is difficult from an administrative perspective to layer on the expectations of the deeper dive into technology integration. Guiding teachers through a purposeful process to utilize the Triple E framework, along with an identification of all the tech tools the district is able to provide (possibly creating a repository) would be quite the undertaking…but could be done through long range preparation and incorporating into the school improvement process.

For students, there is an assumption of access to the technology tools. Where engagement, enhancement and extension of learning not only captivates the student interest, but also available to them throughout the school day, and extended outside of the classroom. In many cases this is true, but not all students have 1:1 access, or the motivation. As educators, we need to continue to work on student access and interest-driven learning opportunities.

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May 13
Susan Byers (May 13 2018 12:14PM) : Time for training is key. more

Teachers and students both need time for training. And, yes, state-mandated training takes a priority. Even in a private system, others are deciding what the PD plans will be. Teachers have to be motivated to learn technology on their own.

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