NowComment
Comments:
Full Summaries Sorted

Academic Success

1 additions to document , most recent 7 months ago

When Why
Apr-10-19 Issues with format, re-upload

42.1 Educational Eiesearch Quarterly 45

 

 

 

Factors Influencing University Student Academic

 

Success

 

Daniel Hepworth Ben Tittlepage Katy Hancock

 

M urray State University

 

These findings suggest that, in the quest to ensure student success, social integration and commitment should be considered secondary factors to academic preparation.

 

 

Introduction

 

Rarely has


46 Educational Research Quarterly September 2018

 

The purpose of the present research is to identify influences for an acute measure of student academic success.

 

(2014) as well as the body of literature which examines the impact of academic preparedness of students on their academic success.

 

 

Literature Review

 

In a revision of his original theory, Tinto (1993) acknowledged other factors influence persistence, such as financial resources, experiences, and interactions within the classroom.

 

Other studies found influences beyond social integration impact academic performance, such as student


42.1 Educational Research Quarterly 47

 

background and modvation (Flynn, 2014; Vanthournout, Gijbels, Coertjens, Donche, & Van Petegem, 2012; Wolfe, 1993), degree and style of classroom organization, availability of faculty and other support sendees, style of classroom instruction, and enrollment in a first-year transitions course (Hopper, 2011; Kluger & Koslowsky, 1988; Kot, 2014; Lundquist, Spalding, & Landrum, 2002; Moore, 2007; Montgomery, Jeffs, Schlegel, & Jones, 2009; Pascarella, Seifert, & Whitt, 2008; Schenker-Wicki & Inauen, 2012; Wyatt & Bloemker, 2013).

 

This revised theory was later tested (Braxton et al., 2014) and student social integration and perception of institutional commitment to student success were identified as key variables influencing persistence into subsequent academic years at the school.

 

While both standardized test scores and HSGPA have shown separately


48 Educational Kiesearch Quarterly September 2018

 

(2008) found first year college GPA to be best predicted using a combination of HSGPA and SAT scores.

 

The authors controlled for multiple race- and class-oriented variables, and found race-related factors to be unimportant, especially against other factors, such as student personal study habits and father’s socioeconomic status.

 

Burton  and  Ramist  (2001)  support  the  predictive


42.1 Educational Eiesearch Quarterly 49

 

validity of both standardized test scores and HSGPA for not only graduadon and college GPA, but also of other factors, including college honors, college leadership, and earning potential after graduation.

 

In an article critical of the existing SAT and ACT formats and arguing for a more achievement-oriented test system, Atkinson and Geiser (2009) note that while both standardized tests and HSGPA are useful in predicting student college performance, HSGPA is presently the superior of the two, especially when accounting for other factors, such as student socioeconomic status.

 

M eth o d s

 

The research question is again posed here with a larger sample size and an


50 Educational Research Quarterly September 2018

 

Drawing from previous research, it is expected that all three variables of perceived commitment, social integration, and preparedness will be positively correlated to the dependent variable of class grade; additionally, it is expected that academic preparedness will have the strongest relationship of the three.

 

Financial aid, of some form, was awarded to 85% of the student population.

 

Students were informed of the surveys by their course instructors; the actual surveys were taken online; those students who completed the survey were given a small amount of extra credit for the course.

 

The course provides an overview of the American judicial system at both state and federal levels and serves as an introduction and gateway course to the criminal justice program for those students who wish to pursue it.

 

In addition to demographic data, results of which were reflective of the university at large (see Table 1), students were asked survey questions to better understand how their perception of institutional commitment and level


42.1 Educational Eesearch Quarterly 51

 

of social integration at the university.

 

Demographic Data from Survey Respondents and Associated University_______________________________________

 

 

Survey percentage

University percentage

 

 

(n = 300)

(n = 10,017)

 

Gender

 

53.0

 

Female

49.5

 

Male

50.5

47.0

 

R ace/ethnicity

 

80.4

 

W hite/C aucasian

81.1

 

Black/African-

7.8

6.8

 

American

11.1

12.8

 

O ther ethnicity

 

Age

95.1

84.0

 

U nder 25 years

 

Over 25 years

4.9

16.0

 

 

A total of 300 students returned a completed survey for a response rate of 53.7%.

 

In order to properly weight these three items for statistical analysis, the student’s ACT score (the ACT is the most commonly taken standardized test at this university) was broken down into quartile based on national averages (0-16, 17-20, 21-24, and 25-36) and high school GPA was categorized based on the standard 4-point scale (0-1.99, 2.00-2.99, 3.00-3.99, 4.00).


52 E ducational Research Quarterly September 2018

 

Survey Questions and Items_______

 

Institutional Commitment________

 

I felt welcomed the first time I entered class.«

 

I feel my CRJ 140 instructor wants me to succeed."

 

In the first four weeks of the course, I received prompt written or oral feedback from the instructor on my performance."

 

My academic advisor clearly explained how completing CRJ 140 meets an academic requirement for my degree."

" I understand the course syllabus. "

 

I feel comfortable asking my instructor for help."

 

In the first four weeks of the course, I discussed a topic related to the course with my instructor "

 

I attended summer orientation."

 

I attended transfer orientation."

 

I enrolled in a college preparation-transitions course."

 

Social Integration

 

I am an athlete"

I am a member of a fraternity/sorority"

 

*

In first four weeks, how often did you use email, social media or phone to communicate with a classmate about coursework ? h

 

Indicate how much time per week you spend relaxing and socializing (e.g. time with friends, watching TV, playing video games ) b

 

Indicate how much time per week you spend participating in co-curricular activities (e.g, student organizations, campus activities) *

 

" D ichotom ous m easure ''L ikert scale m easure

 

See Table 3 for descriptive statistics on each index.

 

Results of Descriptive Analysis of Predictors

 

 

n

X

Range

SD

Academic preparedness

298

8.51

5-11

1.35

Perception of institutional

295

9.11

2-14

1.78

commitment

 

 

 

 

Social integration

295

12.57

6-24

3.21

42.1 Educational E3esearch Quarterly 53

 

For a breakdown of student grades, see Table 4.

 

 

Final Grade D istribution from the Course Surveyed

 

Final grade

A

B

C

D

EW

Total

 

88

88

68

15

41

300

 

Results

 

The test of parallel lines indicated that the slope coefficients were the same across response categories (x - 4.014, df - 3 ,p The overall model was statistically significant (p =

 

.001, =  17.589, df= 3, n - 289; Nagelkerke pseudo R2 =


 

. 062 ).


54 Educational Research Quarterly September 2018

 

Individually, however, only one index, academic preparedness, was statistically significant (p < .001); student perception of institutional commitment (p = .226) and social integration (p For details, see Table 5.

 

 

Results of Ordinal Logistic Regression Analysis"


 

Predictors  o f  course

Estim ate

grade

 

Academ ic

.335

preparedness

 

Perception

.073

com m itm ent

 

Social integration

-.031

 

x 2 — 17.589, overall p = .001.


Std. error Wald x 2 P

 

.081 17 . 020 * <.001

 

.060 1.465 .226

 

.034 .869 .351

 

♦Significant with a = .01.


 

Individuals with an academic preparedness score of 5 had about an 11% likelihood of getting an A, but a 33% likelihood of getting either an E or a W. Conversely, those that had an academic preparedness score of 11 had a 50% likelihood of getting an A and only a 5.7% likelihood of getting an E or a W. See Table 6 for the complete breakdown.

 

 

M eans Table of Academic Preparedness

 

Academ ic

A

B

C

D

EW

preparedness

 

 

 

 

 

5

.1089

.1934

.2761

.0859

.3357

6

.1580

.2415

.2789

.0744

.2473

7

.1952

.2679

.2700

.0657

.2013

8

.2545

.2932

.2462

.0538

.1523

9

.3204

.3051

.2161

.0432

.1152

10

.3933

.3043

.1828

.0337

.0858

11

.5008

.2807

.1381

.0234

.0570

Total

.2964

.2898

.2253

.0487

.1397

42.1 Educational Elesearch Quarterly 55

 

Discussion

 

Existing research suggests that student perception of institutional commitment to student success and student social integration aids in overall retention, however, this research fails to find such a connection as they relate to the acute measure of class grade.

 

As such, the finding of no significant relationship between perception of commitment and social integration to student grade in a course should not be taken as reflective on student persistence.

 

 

Implications and Future Research

 

Universities, and those employed by them, seek not only to educate


56 Educational Research Quarterly September 2018

 

Others have altered the weight of or even eliminated standardized test scores for the admissions process.

 

In other words, it was seen that as students’ social integration increased, their performance in the course dropped, albeit in a manner that is not statistically significant.

 

In other words, those students who were academically and intellectually capable tended to succeed at a greater rate than those who were not, regardless of their feelings about the institution or the nature of their social circle.

 

Future research could explore new methods of collecting this information from students, measure student motivation, track graduation rates of said students, expand to other institutions, or gather information from a wider range of students.

 

The implications of this single study are clear and are


42.1 Educational Research Quarterly 57

 

Additionally, this research suggests that institutions of higher education might be better served in this regard by allocating resources to assist surrounding school districts in their academic preparation of students or by providing additional academic resources (e.g. tutoring) for those university students who are struggling academically or are at an academic disadvantage.

 

 

References

 

Student involvement: A developmental theory for higher education, journal of College Student Personnel ., 25, 297—308.

 

Reflections on a century of college admissions tests. Educational Researcher, 38, 665-676.

 

Gap analysis: An innovative look at gateway courses and student retention. Online Learning, 2/(3), 5-14.

 

Braxton, J. M., Doyle, W. R., Hartley, H. V., Hirschy, A. S., Jones, W. A., & McClendon, M. K. (2014). Rethinking college student retention. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

 

Braxton, J. M., Hirschy, A. S., & McClendon, S. A. (2004).

 

Understanding and reducing college student departure. ASHE-ER1C Higher Education Report 30(3).

 

Appraising Tinto’s theory of college student departure. Journal of College Student Retention: Research, Theory, & Practice, 3(1), 91-118.


58 Educational Research Quarterly September 2018

 

Burton, N. W. & Ramist, L. (2001). Predicting success in college: S A T studies of classes graduating since 1980. (Research New York, NY: The College Board.

 

Defining and measuring college and career readiness: A validation framework. Educational Measurement: Issues and Practice, 32(4), 16-27.

 

Fear of success, racial identity, and academic achievement in black male college students. Community Review, 18(5), 5-18.

 

Predictors of academic and social integration of college students.

Research in Higher Education, 19, 295-322.

 

First year experience for at-risk college students. College Student journal, 5/(1), 1-6.

Baccalaureate attainment of college students at 4-year institutions as a function of student engagement behaviors: Social and academic student engagement behaviors matter. Research in Higher Education, 55, 467-493.

 

Toward a new conceptual model: Integrating the social change model of leadership development and Tinto’s model of student persistence, journal of Leadership Education, 16(5), 97-117.

 

Hiss, W. C. & Franks, V. W. (2014). Defining promise: Optional standardised testing policies in American college and university admissions. Arlington, VA: National Association for College Admission Counseling.

Student enrollment in a supplement course for Anatomy and Physiology results in improved retention and success, journal of College Science Teaching, 40(5), 70-79.

 

Commitment and academic success. Social Behavior and Personality: A n


42.1 Educational E3esearch Quarterly 59

 

International Journal, 16( 2),121-125. doi.org/ 10.2224/ sbp.1988.16.2.121

 

Korbin, J. L., Patterson, B. F., Shaw, E. J., Mattern, K. D., & Barbuti, S. M. (2008). Validity of the S A T for predicting first-year college grade point average (Research Report New York, NY: The College Board.

 

The impact of centralized advising on first-year academic performance and second-year enrollment behavior. Research in Higher Education, 55,

 

527-563.

 

Influence of social integration on class success, journal of Continuing Higher Education, 64(3) , 162-171.

 

College student’s thoughts about leaving the university: The impact of faculty attitudes and behaviors. Journal of College Student Retention: Research, Theory & Practice, 4(2), 123-133.

 

Classifying ethnicity, race, and gender: An intersectional critique of bachelor’s degree completion research. Interactions: UCEA journal of Education & Information Studies, 8(f), 1-23.

 

Mattern, K. D. & Patterson, B. F. (2009). Is performance on the S A T related to college retention? New York, NY: The College Board.

The first-year introduction program as a predictor of student academic performance, journal of Applied Research in the Community College, /7(1), 60-64.

 

Academic motivation and performance of developmental education biology students, journal of Developmental Education, 31(1), 24-34.

Effective instruction and college student persistence:


60 Educational Research Quarterly September 2018

 

Some new evidence. New Directions for Teaching and Teaming 115, 55-70.

Pascarella, E., & Terenzini, P. (1991). How college affects students. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass

The economics of teaching: What lies behind student-faculty ratios?

 

Higher Education Management and Polity, 23(3), 31-51. Student

 

experience and academic success: Comparing a student-centered and a lecture-based course programme. Higher Education, 70(1), 1-17. doi: 10.1007/s 10734-014-9820-3

 

Dropout from higher education: A theoretical synthesis of recent research. Review of Education Research, 45( 1), 89-125.

Tinto, V. (1987, November). The principles of effective retention.

 

Presentation at Fall Conference of the Maryland College Personnel Association, Largo, AID.

 

Tinto, V. (1993). Heaving college: Rethinking the causes and cures of student attrition Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

 

Students’ persistence and academic success in a first-year professional bachelor program: The influence of students’ learning strategies and academic motivation. Education Research International, 1-10. doi: 10.1155/2012/152747

Making the grade: Predicting retention in undergraduate teacher education, journal of College Student Retention, 5,

 

275-292.

 

College performance and retention: A meta-analysis of the predictive validities of ACT scores, high school grades, and SES. Educational Assessment, 20(1), 23-45.


42.1 [Educational Eesearch Quarterly 61

 

Institutional integration, academic success, and persistence of first-year commuter and resident students. Journal of College Student Development, 34, 321-326.

 

Social and emotional learning in a freshman seminar. Higher Education Studies, 3(1), 106-114.

 

Zwick, R. (2013). Disentangling the role of high school grades, S A T scores, and SE S in predicting college achievement Princeton, NJ: ETS.

The effect of high school socioeconomic status on the predictive validity of SAT scores and high school grade-point average. journal of Educational Measurement, 48(2), 101


However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use.

DMU Timestamp: March 29, 2019 18:11

Added April 10, 2019 at 10:58am by Prof. Richardson
Title: Issues with format, re-upload

Discussion

Based on the existing literature, it was expected that all three variables would significantly impact student performance in this course. However, only academic preparedness had a statistically significant impact on that variable. As can be seen in Table 6, the nature of that relationship is congruent with what would typically be expected; as a general rule, the more academically prepared a student was entering college (e.g. higher HS GPA, higher standardized test scores, fewer remedial courses at the university), the higher the likelihood of a good grade. Existing research suggests that student perception of institutional commitment to student success and student social integration aids in overall retention, however, this research fails to find such a connection as they relate to the acute measure of class grade. There are other items that are worth discussion. First, the variance for the model, is relatively low at 6%. In any study such as this, there are factors beyond the scope of the survey; even the strongest and most in-depth survey would be unable to capture all environmental and latent factors. Second, it should be noted that the differences between the measure of student success used in the original studies (persistence) and that used here (performance in a single class) are not insignificant. Success in a single course does not guarantee persistence or graduation; in a similar manner, failure in a single course does not preclude success at the college level overall. As such, the finding of no significant relationship between perception of commitment and social integration to student grade in a course should not be taken as reflective on student persistence. Implications and Future Research The application for the outcomes of this research is essentially identical to other, comparable studies. Universities, and those employed by them, seek not only to educate 56 Educational Research Quarterly September 2018 students, but to set students up for success in the best and most efficient manner possible. This laudable drive has led universities to experiment with the creation of social and residential programs and also to place greater emphasis on faculty and staff as mentors and advisors rather than just teachers. Others have altered the weight of or even eliminated standardized test scores for the admissions process. Unfortunately for those seeking evidence of a need for new and creative methods of student support, the findings of this study do not provide corroboration for this approach. The students’ perception of the professors’ and institution’s commitment to their success and wellbeing had no statistical impact on their performance in the course, nor did their social integration. In fact, while the social integration variable was found to not be statistically significant on course grade, it is worth noting that the direction of this impact was inverse to student grade in the course. In other words, it was seen that as students’ social integration increased, their performance in the course dropped, albeit in a manner that is not statistically significant. The only variable of note was the combination of high school GPA, standardized test scores, and need for remediation. In other words, those students who were academically and intellectually capable tended to succeed at a greater rate than those who were not, regardless of their feelings about the institution or the nature of their social circle. This current survey of students in a single course from a single institution is clearly not exhaustive, nor was it meant to be. Future research could explore new methods of collecting this information from students, measure student motivation, track graduation rates of said students, expand to other institutions, or gather information from a wider range of students. The implications of this single study are clear and are Vol. 42.1 Educational Research Quarterly 57 in line with a large portion of the body of preexisting research: as much as academia may want to place emphasis on cultivating a caring body of faculty and student social integration, the best predictor for student academic success is still ability' and preparedness. As such, in order to work to better ensure student success, factors of academic preparedness should continue to take priority when considering student admissions. Additionally, this research suggests that institutions of higher education might be better served in this regard by allocating resources to assist surrounding school districts in their academic preparation of students or by providing additional academic resources (e.g. tutoring) for those university students who are struggling academically or are at an academic disadvantage.

DMU Timestamp: March 29, 2019 18:11