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An Interconnected Framework for Assessment of Digital Multimodal Composition (English Education, July 2021)

Author: Ewa McGrail, Kristen Hawley Turner, Amy Piotrowski, Kathryn Caprino, Lauren Zucker, and Mary Ellen Greenwood

McGrail, Ewa, et al. “National Council of Teachers of English.” NCTE, English Education, July 2021, https://library.ncte.org/journals/ee/issues/v53-4/31483.


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Drawing from the Beliefs for Integrating Technology into the English Language Arts Classroom, as well as prior scholarship on digitally mediated communication, rhetorical studies and composition, assessment, and digital literacies, this theoretical article presents a framework for creating and assessing digital multimodal compositions. The Interconnected Framework for Assessment of Digital Multimodal Composition conceptualizes digital multimodal composing through three inter-connected and layered domains: audience, mode and meaning, and originality. Though the three domains are defined individually, they are inextricably linked within the recursive processes and products of digital multimodal composing to contribute to intended meaning. The authors describe and justify the domains, present assessment considerations, and conclude with implications for practice and suggestions for designing assessments relevant to context and task.

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(Apr 13 2022 9:11PM) : Even though this comes from NCTE, I'm thinking that multimodal composition happens across the curriculum, and certainly in STEM.
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Christina C (Apr 23 2022 12:30PM) : link to Beliefs statement [Edited] more
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Janet I (Apr 27 2022 5:22PM) : I remember exploring this multimodal concept a few years go at NCTE. It is difficult to begin to standardize an evaluation without it feeling confining.
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Kristen T (May 03 2022 11:27AM) : We VERY much agree that you cannot standardize, and I, for one, don't believe grades and assessment are equivalent.
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Stephanie M (Jul 24 2022 3:51PM) : Framework for creating and assessing. more

I agree with you. Grades and assessments are not equivalent. There are many students who just cannot take a test, because they get super nervous and it dosent means that they dont know the content.

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Christina C (Apr 23 2022 12:31PM) : a framework for creating and assessing more

It might be useful to title this as a framework for “creating and assessing” as that makes it more clear that its not about grading.

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Janet I (Apr 27 2022 5:23PM) : Exactly, the idea of seeking to learn more about the process, the thinking and not a grade.
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Over the last few decades, the field of English teacher education has embraced the idea that literacy involves the social practices and abilities that enable readers and writers to understand multiple ways of representing, communicating, and interpreting texts and ideas from different contexts and in different modes (Swenson et al., 2006). As stated in the Beliefs for Integrating Technology into the English Language Arts Classroom (Bartels et al., 2019), “Literacy means literacies” (p. 307) in today’s world. As such, English teachers are charged to “model classroom use for engaging and critiquing texts” that make use of “digital and networked technologies” and to “design assignments, activities and assessments” (Bartels et al., 2019, p. 308). Yet, both English teachers and the educators who instruct them struggle with how to assess digital multimodal creations. While there is much research on multimodal practices in teacher education and language arts classrooms (Jocius, 2020; Lammers & Van Alstyne, 2019; Smith, 2017), as well as some guidance on assessment—in, for example, the Multimodal Assessment Project

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May 11
Harry B (May 11 2022 8:16AM) : Challenges to teachers... more

I am thinking this challenge to present multimodal creations tasks librarians as well.

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(Apr 13 2022 9:12PM) : Again, I get it, that this is coming from English Education, but it doesn't have to stay there does it?
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Christina C (Apr 23 2022 12:39PM) : what struck me more

What struck me though here is that it’s embraced in teacher ed but not in teaching practice necessarily. English or otherwise.

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Apr 27
Andrea Z (Apr 27 2022 11:20AM) : This also struck me. more

This struck me because, even though the authors are making a rhetorical choice based on their audience of the journal, it exposes the huge rift we have between the comprehensive K12 world and Higher Ed. These dichotomies do not serve us as a profession.

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Kristen T (May 03 2022 11:26AM) : The authors had (have?) the goal to write a companion piece for English Journal. Pandemic and health got in the way!
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Paul H (Apr 24 2022 4:40PM) : If...if Originality Might Have Been more

If Originality had been Innovation, we might have found the AIM of Multimodal Composition.

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(MAP) framework from the National Writing Project (NWP) (Eidman-Aadahl et al., 2013)—critiquing and assessing multimodal creations has received little attention from English education and literacy researchers. Furthermore, digital multimodal composing is not the same as print-based composing; there is a difference between a digital video essay and a traditional written or typed essay, so traditional assessment frameworks may not be helpful (Burke & Hammett, 2009; McGrail & Behizadeh, 2017).

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Paul H (Apr 24 2022 4:41PM) : The Idea and the Execution more

Recognizing and appreciating are the buzz terms. Engaging in the work is the buzz saw. The movement through what is really happening in too many classrooms: traditional/standard/assessment-ready writing.

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Apr 23
Christina C (Apr 23 2022 12:40PM) : Link to article re: MAP Framework of NWP more

https://ccdigitalpress.org/dwae/07_nwp.html

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Christina C (Apr 23 2022 12:55PM) : I've been saying for years ... [Edited] more

… that something should be done with this work since its been needed. The MAP work is also useful – context, artifact, substance, process management and technique, and habits of mind – and I have a teacher in my class who detailed her work with her students using this. Will see if I can get her permission to share.https://ccdigitalpress.org/dwae/07_nwp.html

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Andrea Z (Apr 27 2022 11:25AM) : I also forgot about these resources! more

In fact, I have been using more and more of the PBLWorks.org resources when working with teachers and students around multi-modal composition. Would love to see the MAP work in a more teacher-friendly format.

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As members of the ELATE Commission on Digital Literacy and Teacher Education who have researched multimodal and digital writing for close to two decades, and based on our own experiences with students who regularly produce multimodal compositions, we are interested in how teachers can move from print-based assessment frameworks to those that support writers in digital spaces. This support begins with understanding how to critique, assess, and provide feedback to digital writers, yet there is limited research in this area.

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To address this gap, we propose an interconnected framework comprised of three domains. This framework leads to assessment considerations for each domain of multimodal composition. It provides an approach for English teachers and teacher educators, as well as their students, for critiquing and assessing multimodal creations in their own contexts. In exploring the framework in our own teaching as English teacher educators and English teachers, we use authentic student examples (with all students’ names used with permission) to articulate definitions of each domain and specific questions that might be asked by both writers and assessors of multimodal texts.

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Paul H (Apr 24 2022 4:45PM) : Natalie Diaz's POSTCOLONIAL LOVE POEM. more

The people who lead #TheBookChat considered Diaz’s Pulitzer Award collection as part of a recent chat. In that collection, there is a poem that suggests “The Museum of ________” which is not a museum at all, but the suggestion of what one might find there in layout and curation. There are the two terms that might take this from the page to the place. Layout. Curation. Imagine a research project that creates such a space for peers to “walk through.” More than the “web crawls” of. . .old. This is would be an immersive experience born of the student’s appreciation of the subject. Could incorporate real and realized artifact as well as multimodal pieces/exhibits.

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(Apr 13 2022 9:14PM) : "interconnected" I guess this means that the domains overlap -- or that when you are working in one you might also be addressing the other ones too?
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Apr 23
Christina C (Apr 23 2022 12:50PM) : MAP did the same thing more

The MAP team did the same thing; key to authentic questions.

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Samuel R (May 04 2022 8:15PM) : Authenticity. more

To Andrea’s point, Authencity is a major pillar in PBL work we explored and practiced in the PBL program at Penn GSE.

Dilemmas in Examining and Assessing Digital Multimodal Composing

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Today’s technologies enable and encourage digital multimodal creation that includes images, audio, video, graphics, and alphabetic text to convey messages and to encourage interaction and collaboration with a communicative purpose and real audience (Anderson & Jiang, 2018; Hicks, 2013; Ito et al., 2009; Lammers & Van Alstyne, 2019; Weiser, Fehler, & González, 2009). Through the lenses of New Literacies and multimodality, we recognize that digital composing and its resulting creations share the following characteristics:

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(Apr 13 2022 9:16PM) : I love this sentence. I could live in there!
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Christina C (Apr 23 2022 1:06PM) : Yes, nicely said.
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>They are multimodal (New London Group, 2000), blending and inhabiting different modalities (e.g., visual, oral, textual) and genres (e.g., poetry mashup, digital story), and they are disseminated in a variety of media (e.g., audio recording, social media post).

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(Apr 13 2022 9:17PM) : I had to think about this distinction between modes and media here, but it seems useful.
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Christina C (Apr 23 2022 1:08PM) : Mode, Media, Genre more

All three are tricky and this does a nice job of sorting them, I agree. Genre is the one I often get stuck on … it seems so fluid to me, on the one hand, and then fairly clear on the other for some things (ie. a blog, a digital story, an animated gif, etc.)

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> They are outcomes of an authentic writing task with a communicative purpose (Duke et al., 2006; Lindblom, 2015; Wiggins, 2009).

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Christina C (Apr 23 2022 12:49PM) : this focus on authentic writing task ... more

… feels like a key important distinction here that pushes on how – and why – we teach writing in the first place.

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Janet I (Apr 27 2022 5:26PM) : Identifying the why, providing a border way to respond or create for both educators and students is an important shift.
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Paul H (Apr 24 2022 4:48PM) : Pre-Planning and Reflection more

In a recent invitation in Room 407, we ask for period progress “checks” wherein the students continually assess the big question their project is attempting to answer. If no question at the origin, does it begin to raise its hand quietly after a third or fourth check? Are we listening for the big question? Are we attending to it, or doing our own thing?

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> They incorporate some degree of interaction and/or collaboration with a real audience utilizing various means of communication (McGrail & Behizadeh, 2017).

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> They invite diverse forms of creativity and challenge traditional notions of originality of multimodal texts (Law, 2020; McGrail & McGrail, 2010).

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Examples of this kind of composition come from Lammers and Van Alstyne’s study (2019) of high school students learning to identify and write for their audiences through participation “as readers and writers on a variety of popular websites, such as Fanfiction.net, Wattpad, and Tumblr” (p. 653). Because much of the authentic composition was done anonymously or using screen names unknown to their teachers, the students’ compositions were not assessed. Though students earned credit for participating, the authors stated, “We did not evaluate their creative writing” (p. 656), which Silseth and Gilje (2019) would describe as a “decoupling of production practices and assessment practices” (p. 28). This example identifies the need for educators to consider both how to honor the norms and practices of composing in digital spaces and how to assess multimodal compositions.

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Examples also come from the Community Inquiry and Mobile Learning (CIML) project (Rish et al., 2018), where adolescents participating in a community service program digitally mapped assets of interest to them (e.g., recreational activities) throughout their community. The creative process included data collection, mappings software, digital photos, walking tours, and conversations with researchers to represent the findings spatially, geographically, and multimodally. The authors did not address assessment, and it is not clear how teachers would evaluate such Story Maps with adolescents’ learning processes taking place along many “trajectories and physical, virtual, and educational mobilities that connected places” (Rish et al., 2018, p. 138).

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These examples demonstrate the difficulty of assessing digital multi-modal compositions and the need for a framework to do so, since assessment allows for feedback that helps writers to grow. Although the word assessment is used three times in the Beliefs statement (Bartels et al., 2019), little guidance or import is placed on this aspect of integrating technology into the English language arts and literacy classroom. How, then, can teachers of multimodal writing begin to tackle the assessment issue?

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Christina C (Apr 23 2022 12:52PM) : This is the sentence I wanted my class to really see in this article more

“since assessment allows for feedback that helps writers to grow”

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Christina C (Apr 23 2022 12:56PM) : I was wondering this ... more

… as I was working on my course for JHU; I was realizing this same thing – there was little out there.

Research on Teachers Negotiating Assessment of Multimodal Composition

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Tan et al.’s (2020) literature review showed that teachers in higher education and K–12 contexts do not have sufficient knowledge in assessing multimodal composing, focusing instead on language or text even when they assess multimodal compositions. In an earlier study, Wierszewski (2013) observed that teachers’ evaluative comments in assessing multimodal creations overlapped with the comments typically made in traditional print essays. However, the researcher identified six criteria needed to assess student multimodal compositions: “creativity, grammar, idea development, movement, multimodality, and technical execution [italics in original]” (Discussion, para. 6). Wierszewski (2013) noted that, even when student multimodal compositions included at least two modalities, teachers were less attentive to this multimodality. Similarly, Tan et al. (2020) found that little attention had been given to “intermodal complementarity (how modes operate together to create meanings) (Painter & Martin, 2011) in the teachers’ assessment practices and frameworks [italics in original]” (p. 104).

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Janet I (Apr 27 2022 5:31PM) : How the modes are intertwined and build the project are sometimes difficult to evaluate, but in essence critical to the work. Knowing how and why the creator chose their medium is an often overlooked but important element.

In part, it seems that tackling the issue of assessment requires developing knowledge of how writers craft digital compositions. Hicks, Turner, and Stratton (2013) and Turner and Hicks (2017) articulated the importance of knowledge of technology and how it intersects with procedural and declarative knowledge of form and substance, yet the model presented does not address assessment criteria. In his 2015 book, Hicks provided an assessment protocol that prompts conversation about digital writing focused on the following questions: “What do you see/notice?; What is working in this piece/composition?; What does it make you wonder/what questions does it raise?” (p. 16). These questions may turn teachers’ eyes from more traditional assessment criteria to consider the unique features of digital compositions; however, a more specific framework for discussing digital multimodal texts may better support teachers in offering specific and effective feedback. Leaders from the National Writing Project (Eidman-Aadahl et al., 2013) outlined domains for multimodal writing assessment that included the “language of evaluation, the language of instruction” (para. 1): artifact, context, substance, process management and technique, and habits of mind. As with Hicks (2015), this work highlighted the importance of process in digital creation, as well as the need for conversation about that process in assessment. What is less clear, however, are the criteria for what makes a piece of digital writing effective.

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Christina C (Apr 23 2022 9:57AM) : This seems key to me more

We need to practice this work, together.

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Christina C (Apr 23 2022 10:02AM) : We did this in my course, notice/wonder ... more

… and I do think it starts to help people “see” the work. It’s not enough but it felt like a useful place to start.

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Christina C (Apr 23 2022 10:03AM) : This process piece ... [Edited] more

… was a big conversation in my class amongst the teachers. We used a composing process (make cycle) that also included a documentation process and a make log process. These things helped us get to process, at least of our own work.

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What domains might support conversations that critique the artifact itself while still acknowledging the importance of process? How might domains engage multimodal writers and assessors in examining the relationships within and across domains to create meanings? Turning back to the Beliefs statement provides a guide to answering these questions. For example, the concepts of audience, multimodality, and repurposing are mentioned multiple times, suggesting their import for consideration in teaching and assessing digital multimodal compositions. Taken in conjunction with the literature, we can define the domains that support the development of specific criteria for assessment of digital multimodal writing: (1) audience, (2) mode and meaning, and (3) originality. We explore each domain in turn after first sharing how they work in an interconnected, and often messy, way.

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Christina C (Apr 23 2022 1:05PM) : This idea of messiness was also important ... more

… as teachers created their own compositions. They could really see and feel this.

Interconnected Framework

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Audience, mode and meaning, and originality represent three domains of multimodal composition. While it is possible to define each and to articulate assessment considerations within each domain, these three domains work together in creating a holistic composition and meaning. The domains are both layered and interconnected rather than easily separated as discrete components. The framework presented here builds on earlier work (e.g., (Eidman-Aadahl et al., 2013; Wahleithner, 2014) to show that digital com-posing is often a messy act of communication where these three domains come together holistically.

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Composing is recursive (Flower & Hayes, 1981) and multimodal composing is even more so (Fulwiler & Middleton, 2012; Jocius, 2020) as it “allows for sequential multimodal representation of thoughts and ideas” (Bruce, 2009, p. 443) to be continuously adjusted “to ensure that modes are working together” (Jocius, 2020, p. 152). This means that writers may not consider each domain equally or in linear and fixed form, choosing to privilege one domain depending on the context of the writing task. For example, on social media, audiences can be interactive, a key feature of the context that may make the domain of audience more prominent in the composition process. Yet, writers must consider mode and meaning, as well as originality, as they compose since all three domains contribute to the whole composition.

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Apr 23
Christina C (Apr 23 2022 1:15PM) : Here's another favorite sentence, Paul :)
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Apr 27
Janet I (Apr 27 2022 5:31PM) : Like all forms of creativity correct, it's messy.
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Christina C (Apr 23 2022 1:16PM) : I think this point is really interesting to think about more ... more

An interactive audience is interesting to consider … seems like its not just on social media though but any networked technology.

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Christina C (Apr 23 2022 1:17PM) : Originality is where a lot of interested was ... more

… by teachers in my course. We ended up reading more by Renee Hobbs and brought in the focus on ethics from Kristen Turner’s book to unpack this a bit.

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Janet I (Apr 27 2022 5:34PM) : This chart demonstrates the cyclical nature of the work. Many times teachers have multimodal projects as an option after writing, instead it should be in my opinion, the option to respond in it's own right.
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Christina C (Apr 28 2022 11:25AM) : yes, this is important more

Agree!

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Kristen T (May 03 2022 11:31AM) : I also wonder whether many teachers only see multimodal writing as a product. Revision is important.
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Figure 1 is a visual representation of the proposed framework. The overlapping blocks communicate the interconnectedness of the three domains while showing that digital multimodal composing is not linear. The incomplete circle indicates that there is movement in the act of digital multimodal composing, allowing for the flow of ideas within and across domains while bringing unity and wholeness to a composition.

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Audience

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(Apr 24 2022 3:43PM) : Please record your spontaneous responses to paragraphs 24 - 43 when first reading them, and go back to add more more considered ideas after talking with others about the text and re-reading. [Edited] more

It would also be wonderful for future readers if you could add multimodal examples by adding images and links and embedding videos in your comments. See more.

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Because of social networking and digitally mediated communication, the concept of audience has expanded to include multiple and diverse audiences (boyd, 2014). Fanfiction writers, remix creators, and users of social media platforms (e.g., Facebook) engage in conversation and collaboration online where meaning, interpretation, and ideas are “augmented, altered, and amended” (Hoffman, 2015, p. 34) in ways that help both writers and audience. Within such contexts, writers’ awareness of the audience is situated in a complex and multidirectional relationship with the audience. For example, the actual audience is not always clear on social network sites, as the audience writers imagine might not read or follow their posts (Lunsford & Ede, 2009). However, there might be “invisible audiences” (boyd, 2014, p. 31) and “unwanted audiences” (Lunsford & Ede, 2009, p. 55), that is, audiences who are not intended or recognizable, since diverse audiences with different interests and expectations inhabit the same social network environments (Weiser et al., 2009). This complex environment can lead to what Marwick and boyd (2011) referred to as the “context collapse” or the “flattening of [multiple] audience[s] . . . into single contexts” (p. 114).

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Christina C (Apr 23 2022 1:18PM) : "multidirectional relationship" more

Also useful language

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(Apr 29 2022 4:27PM) : Right, so "multidirectional relationship" has to do with making something in a community of makers. Collaboratively adding to a project that is much bigger than your one contribution. That's exciting to think about.
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Christal P (Apr 29 2022 4:37PM) : Invisible/Unwanted Audience more

With using multi-modal it’s essential to think about who the intended audience is and curating everything to their benefit and engagement. Takes a lot more planning and understanding the way your audience interacts with different types of information.

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Apr 23
Christina C (Apr 23 2022 1:20PM) : I'm not sure I really understand this idea of flattening ... more

… I tend to think its the opposite. So I should read what these references say because I don’t get how it becomes flat and single.

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Apr 27
Christopher S (Apr 27 2022 8:51PM) : Yes, I have questions about that too. "Single contexts" just seems grammatically inconsistent. I should probably read this too.
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Apr 29
Christal P (Apr 29 2022 4:37PM) : I agree - not sure what is meant by flattening.
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May 3
Kristen T (May 03 2022 11:33AM) : https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Context_collapse#:~:text=Context%20collapse%20or%20%22the%20flattening,internet%2C%20especially%20within%20social%20media. more

It’s the concept that the message reaches unintended audiences.

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Christina C (May 05 2022 1:31PM) : +1
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Stephanie M (Jul 24 2022 5:22PM) : Audience more

Using Multimodal, It is crucial to have a clear audience. Since the message can be misinterpreter.
As the autor says, Many people only read the title and the actual document.

In discussing the writer-reader relationship shift in academic writing, Long (1980) argued that writers create the audience they wish to have by asking themselves questions that aid their process of “inventing” the audience: “Who do I want my audience to be?” (p. 225) and “What attitudes, ideas, actions are to be encouraged?” rather than beginning with the traditional question of “Who is my audience?” (p. 226). While today’s writers ask similar questions to create the audiences they desire for their digital multimodal compositions, they use a wider range of writing tools and modalities (e.g., images, audio, graphics) than the writers of the past. They also attract larger, more diverse, and more fluid audiences for their writing (see boyd, 2014; Marwick & boyd, 2011). The biggest difference, however, is that the role of the audience has expanded and that audience can and often does interact with the writers. Thus, writers must be able to discern who they are interacting with and how they wish to possibly manage and negotiate their interaction with the audience.

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Apr 23
Christina C (Apr 23 2022 1:20PM) : I do love this idea of "inventing" your audience
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Christopher S (Apr 27 2022 8:53PM) : Agreed. This seems different than just "knowing" or "anticipating" your audience. More of an active stance toward how you want the audience to engage with your composition
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(Apr 13 2022 9:27PM) : "What attitudes, ideas, actions are to be encouraged?" THIS is the shift they are pointing to, I think. The maker is prompted to think about what they want the audience to do... think... feel... if I have this right.
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Apr 29
Christal P (Apr 29 2022 4:39PM) : I agree - this goes beyond writing for your audience. Need to think about what type of experience you want your audience to have from beginning to end.
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Christal P (Apr 29 2022 4:40PM) : Many writers aren't ready for the immediate feedback that comes with online multi-modal projects. more

I believe when publishing writers need to be ready to respond and open up to their audience about how this was created for them and the reasoning behind it and be open to their feedback.

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(Apr 29 2022 4:41PM) : This sentence feels important: So previously the writer imagined what their audience was going to do with their words, but now the audience does, in fact, in tangible ways, DO THINGS because or your words. more

It’s not so much like a How-to video or an instructional manual. It’s more like you do this dance on TikTok because you want to show off , perhaps, but more because you want to challenge others to do the dance too. You get joy out of what you are doing and you try to show that and invite others to experience the joy too themselves. So yeah THAT is a totally different way of interacting with you audience. You are creating a SCRIPT for others to follow when you are making on the Internet.

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Assessment Implications for the Proposed Framework

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Given the changing dynamics of the audience described above, assessment considerations of audience awareness in multimodal composing should include the ability to articulate the imagined versus actual audience (Lunsford & Ede, 2009), as well as who is actually reading and responding to writers’ digital multimodal creations (boyd, 2014). Writers should be able to discuss how they negotiate the power dynamics and the potential conflicts in these imagined and actual audiences, in addition to the goals they have for a given rhetorical situation (Charlton, 2014). Writers should also be able to reflect on “the nature of engagement and collaboration with the audience . . . [and] . . . the point in the composition process (e.g., creation and distribution)” (McGrail & Behizadeh, 2017, p. 35). Finally, writers should clarify if they did or did not use the audience’s feedback in efforts to improve their compositions. The following questions can guide writers and assessors in these considerations:

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Apr 13
Harriet F (Apr 13 2022 9:15PM) : So writers are inventing their audience? Instead of the usual question asked by teachers: Who are you writing for? You are asking,"Who do you want to be writing for"
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(Apr 13 2022 9:23PM) : Yeah, they bring this up, but then don't say much more about it. I think about it. more

When we are asking composers to have an authentic audience, they aren’t making it up. I think this is suggesting that we ask multimodal composers to consider what they want their audience to DO with their product.

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Christina C (Apr 23 2022 1:23PM) : Do versus Be? I like that! [Edited] more

That’s interesting … since you can’t control who IS your audience really, it’s more about response and action? … I feel like that starts to get underneath the idea that this kind of composition is authentic in its task.

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Christal P (Apr 29 2022 4:44PM) : I like this. Thinking about what the audience is to do instead of who they are and how to build something for them. more

With the idea of the audience being more expanded – I see how as a writer or creator it’s better to focus on what you want them to DO, rather than who this ideal audience is. Focus shifts from imagining your audience and what they might want to the experience itself.

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> What conceptions of audience(s) do writers have?

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> How do writers utilize audience interactivity to achieve their writing goals?

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> How do writers negotiate power dynamics and potential conflicts in imagined and actual audiences?

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Domain in Practice: Audience

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To explore the domain of audience in practice, we turn to TreasureofRead-ing(Liu & Dou, 2015), a website codesigned by Zhongjian and Meredith, two Master of Education students at a private institution in the northeast. For this assignment, students were instructed to design a teaching tool using technology to assist English Language Learners

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in their acquisition of content-area vocabulary. Zhongjian and Meredith chose to design a digital textbook that featured two original stories written for elementary students, “A Love Story” and “A Tale of a Pirate.” (Scan the QR code in Figure 2 with a smartphone to be directed to the Treasure of Reading website [Liu & Dou, 2015].) Zhongjian and Meredith created digital picture books for each story, using the website Storybird, and audio-recorded a read-aloud file to accompany each book (see Figure 3). They also created digital flashcards with vocabulary words from each story using Quizlet and embedded the flashcards on their website (see Figure 4). The website, created with Google Sites, included two options for navigation: an upper-level menu bar and three large icons on the homepage (see Figure 5).

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In examining the product itself through the lens of the audience domain, we first explore the question, “What conceptions of audience(s) do the writers have?” The language on the website clarifies that the writers crafted this text with multiple audiences in mind: elementary students, teachers, and their professor. For example, on a subpage titled “About this Website Textbook,” the authors made an extended argument for why teachers should adopt their texts to use with ESL students. Here, they clarified the intended audience for the texts themselves (second through fourth graders) and shared suggestions for classroom implementation.

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They also described intentional design choices made for their audience, for example, using simple, colorful icons and menus to make the website accessible and inviting for children. Though the navigation and website headings were not entirely intuitive, the authors explained that they considered various scenarios when designing the site. They organized the content so that a teacher could present it to their class on a single screen, or alternatively, so that students could move through the website independently. One could continue to investigate the writers’ conceptions of their audience(s) by reviewing individual components of the text, including the stories themselves and their corresponding materials.

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Next, we consider the question, “How do writers utilize audience interactivity to achieve their writing goals?” The authors of the website shared their goal of helping ESL students’ literacy development by utilizing three strategies: “integrat[ing] reading, writing, listening, and speaking with each other,” “contextualizing vocabulary,” and “provid[ing] interest-ing instructional materials” (Liu & Dou, 2015, About this Website Textbook section, para. 1). With this goal of engaging readers in multiple ways, the writers incorporated a variety of interactive elements within their website. The pairing of a picture book and accompanying audio-recording invited students to practice reading and listening. The clickable stories required students to hover over each page with their cursor to “flip” the pages of the book and, similarly, “flip” the digital flashcards with a click to reveal the vocabulary word or its accompanying definition. Students could click basic controls (e.g., play/pause, volume) to listen to the embedded audio files. Though a comments box appeared at the bottom of some of the subpages, the comments feature was disabled.

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Lastly, we turn to the question, “How do writers negotiate potential conflicts in imagined and actual audiences?” Though the website was designed with multiple audiences in mind, the navigation was not intuitive for either group. For example, the “Surprise” heading in the menu bar leads users to an “About this Website Textbook” page written for an audience of teachers. It is possible, though, that student readers might click on the “Surprise” menu and find their way to a page not designed for them to utilize. Similarly, the writers used the word “Lessons” as a menu heading, which could suggest “lesson plans” to teacher-readers; however, the “Les-sons” page was geared toward students, housing reading material for each story, referred to as Lesson 1 and Lesson 2.

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Considering this example of multimodal writing through the lens of our framework, we see some missed opportunities. For example, we wonder about the authors’ decision to disable the comment feature and what that might reveal about their perceptions of audience. In this case, the instructor did not prompt the creators to explain this rhetorical choice, so our analysis of the text itself does not reveal such information. The last question within the audience domain, with its distinction between imagined and actual audiences, necessitates that the creators of a text consider their varied audiences and share those reflections explicitly with their instructor. Gaps such as these point to the framework’s ability to raise questions about instructional possibilities that could enhance both the creators’ and readers’ experiences.

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Apr 23
Christina C (Apr 23 2022 1:32PM) : Also could be an opportunity for conversation with audience here more

As Harriet writers below, this is an opportunity for writing as more of a communal activity.

Mode and Meaning

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(Apr 24 2022 3:56PM) : Please record your spontaneous responses to paragraphs 44 - 67 (and beyond) when first reading them, and go back to add more more considered ideas after talking with others about the text and re-reading. [Edited] more

It would also be wonderful for future readers if you could add multimodal examples by adding images and links and embedding videos in your comments. See more.

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Stephanie M (Jul 24 2022 5:10PM) : Mode and Meaning more

Keeping in mind that every student learn different and have different needs. As future teachers we should think about ways on how to help them navigate and learn the material. We dont want studenst to feel confused and lost.

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Composing any piece necessitates considering the mode best suited to the piece’s intended audience. Kress (2005) defined mode as “the culturally and socially produced resources for representation” (p. 6), including “artifacts, experiences, [and] technological tools” (Anderson & Kachorsky, 2019, p. 24). In other words, mode refers to the means and tools of composing—and these tools exist in social and cultural contexts. Kress (2005) distinguished mode from media by defining mode as the means by which compositions are shared with an audience and messages are disseminated to readers, viewers, and listeners. As Kress pointed out, modes have affordances and limitations that impact the meaning of a composition since the mode serves as the form of the composition.

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Lexxis I (Apr 29 2022 4:24PM) : Think about how students may navigate. Think about what tools they may be excited about and which ones may cause them to become confused and lose focus
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May 4
Kristen T (May 04 2022 9:26PM) : And which ones should they push themselves to learn outside their comfort zones
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So, what does it mean to combine modes to communicate a message? How can writers strategically use the affordances and limitations of different modes to create meaning? Mills et al. (2020) demonstrated that students can use multimodal strategies to communicate attitudinal meanings through systems of appraisal, as designed by Martin and White (2005), which create positive and negative feelings and attitudes. In studying culturally and linguistically diverse twelfth graders completing multimodal assignments, Smith (2019) pointed out that disparities in technical skill can affect how students are able to create meaning and that collaboration can be a way to develop these skills. In digital multimodal writing, writers draw on knowledge of form, substance, and technologies to craft compositions that produce a desired meaning and effect on an audience (Hicks et al., 2013). The connection between mode and meaning, then, is an important aspect of multimodal composition.

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Apr 13
Harriet F (Apr 13 2022 9:18PM) : Writing becomes a communal activity
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Christina C (Apr 23 2022 1:36PM) : +1
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Apr 29
Lexxis I (Apr 29 2022 4:26PM) : This is important because we do not want to single out any one student due to their access to technology, supplies, support.
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Lexxis I (Apr 29 2022 4:40PM) : This allows students to express creatively express comprehension, questions, skills, individuality, and allows them to feel in charge of their own learning experience
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Through technical skill, writers can realize the affordances (and limitations) of various modes, making discrete choices to create meaning. The more writers know about how tools can be used, the more writers can make strategic decisions about which tools to use and how to use them (Hicks et al., 2013). Therefore, in crafting multimodal compositions, writers must draw on knowledge of different modes and their affordances, knowledge of particular genres and the conventions of those genres, and knowledge of technologies that allow the multimodal composition to be created and distributed. This knowledge intersects with the content to be shared. Meaning evolves from the attention to this intersection, so choices of mode facilitate meaning for the audience.

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Marina L (Apr 13 2022 9:21PM) : Allowing students to explore the tools that are available to them certainly helps them to discover the benefits that each digital tool may offer when making decision about how to demonstrate or construct their knowledge.
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(Apr 13 2022 9:31PM) : I'm thinking that this is about getting to really know the tools you are using, and not the (unfortunate) "use whatever tool you would like" assignment we sometimes see.
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Christina C (Apr 23 2022 1:38PM) : It can be useful though ... more

… to try a range of tools to see how the differ and what each affords, right?

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Paul A

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(Apr 24 2022 3:49PM) : I think there could be more direct instruction for specific tool (e.g. PowerPoint, Minecraft, Scratch...). The easy move to invite students"choose any tool that you are comfortable with" can sometimes skip over the need for instruction within each tool.
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Apr 25
Christina C (Apr 25 2022 2:07PM) : I tend to think about kinds of tools as a set ... because so many are close in type (slides for example, reels as another, audio, video, etc.)
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(Apr 26 2022 10:26AM) : Take VoiceThread as an example. I think makers get better and better at using the affordances as they practice and see each other's work. And when teachers give direct instructions on how to use the too. more

I’ve seen assignments where teachers invite students to use PowerPoint, VoiceThread, or any other slideshow you want to use, and I worry that there isn’t enough thinking through what affordances are fitting a particular project.

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Kristen T (May 04 2022 9:28PM) : Also important is that tools are not permanent. For example - wikispaces was a great tool that no longer exists. Screencastify is changing the pricing structure and will likely not be as readily available. Etc.
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Lexxis I (Apr 29 2022 4:29PM) : Getting our students out of their comfort zone and exploring new modes that may have not heard of sparks not only interest in the mode but the content itself and also likely become more memorable to them
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Harry B (May 04 2022 9:30PM) : Collaboration more

I see many instances where students need collaboration time and space to not just express what they know or realize, but what they together do not “get”, realize, or understand.

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Christina C (Apr 23 2022 1:40PM) : This is very McLuhan, right? more

(although now we have to unpack “medium” versus mode and media and meaning :)
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_medium_is_the_message

Assessment Implications for the Proposed Framework

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In assessing multimodal compositions, teachers can consider how elements are combined in a situation to communicate a message to the audience. Whithaus (2005) pointed out that

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the ability to see a relation between textual and visual elements are some of the skills that will develop as students become more proficient with multimodal literacies. The trick will be to design assessment systems that are flexible enough to adapt as these forms of writing emerge. (p. 16)

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Lexxis I (Apr 29 2022 4:35PM) : visuals to a text can be useful in students create and investigate the meaning to what is being said more
It is also extremely helpful to ELLs who may know what the image means or is in their home language and creates the foundation to understanding nonnative text

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Christina C (Apr 23 2022 1:42PM) : emergence more

I am interested in this notion that there is constant emergence of form/genre, etc.

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Among his suggested assessment criteria, Neal (2011) included relationships among modes, media, and texts. Modes working together is key to the persuasiveness of a multimodal composition.

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Christina C (Apr 23 2022 1:43PM) : Important point here more

Should look to Turner and Hick’s book on argument writing for more on this

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Kristen T (May 04 2022 9:29PM) : Thinking back on writing this - not even a decade ago - and how it likely needs to be updated. So much has changed in the landscape.

To assess multimodal compositions, teachers must understand the how and why of students’ decisions in addition to looking at the composition itself. The following questions will help writers and assessors with considerations of mode and meaning:

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Christina C (Apr 23 2022 1:44PM) : Again, this need to understand the process as well as the product
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> How do writers make choices about the modes they compose in and the media they use to disseminate their multimodal compositions?

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Liz L (Apr 27 2022 9:19PM) : Questions for assessment more

This really gets into thinking about your thinking

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> How do writers combine modes in ways that communicate their meaning to an audience? Are the combinations of modes persuasive in communicating the intended meaning?

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> How do writers choose the media to get their message to their audience?

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Domain in Practice: Mode and Meaning

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In response to a task that challenged teacher candidates to examine how identity influenced their learning, Kieran, a Master of Arts in Teaching candidate at a private university in the northeast, created an Instagram profile titled “and.and.and.and.and.and.and” where she experimented with multimodal representation. Each post included an image of an impactful text and her written reflective experience associated with that text. In all, a series of 15 posts traced her identity development and the “dichotomies [that] inevitably led to the hierarchization, and sometimes exclusion, of practices and concepts” (see Figure 6).

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Looking at Kieran’s piece, we first ask, “How do writers combine modes in ways that communicate their meaning to an audience?” and “Are the combination of modes persuasive in communicating the intended meaning?” Kieran provided a series of short posts analyzing works of literature and philosophy. While a reader might expect an Instagram page to rely on images or video, each post on this page relied on text. The reader is led to navigate through the series of posts as a gallery of analysis. Each post is viewed by clicking on a colored tile with the title of that analytical post. Though the format suggests that the reader move through the posts sequentially, it is possible to click on any particular post in a nonlinear order.

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By presenting a series of analytical posts rather than a long essay, Kieran has made a choice in mode that leads to and underscores her meaning: her thoughts on identity and the emotional nature of academic work.

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Kieran calls this Instagram account “a rhizomatic visual representation of self.” For her, the study of literature is about emotion, and by viewing the posts one by one, the reader explores her gallery of literature as an exploration of her identity.

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To examine the question, “How do writers make choices about the modes they compose in and the media they use to disseminate their com-positions,” it is useful to hear from Kieran herself. In correspondence with her professor, she stated,

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My representation of voice in this project also relates to my use of the rhizome as a means to structure my identity and project. No one part is separate from or more valuable than the whole. The last post was meant to be open-ended, because I do not see this inquiry as resolved.

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Her choice in mode—an Instagram profile—allowed her to show movement over time, the duality of the rhizome that sat at the heart of her project, and an unresolved ending. The pairing of image and text further supported the dichotomies she felt in her identity exploration.

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The final question of “How do writers choose the media to get their message to their audience?” is more difficult to explore in this project. The Instagram profile that Kieran created has only two followers, one of them her professor. The profile is open, yet she did not share it broadly enough to recruit an audience.

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Apr 29
Lexxis I (Apr 29 2022 4:46PM) : Connected to what the audience wants

As assessors, we might surmise that she did not want to share these deeply reflective moments beyond the course. This assumption, however, lies in our review of her product, not in Kieran’s reflection on her process.

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Apr 23
Christina C (Apr 23 2022 1:47PM) : I also think ... more

… it’s hard to know about disseminate really because of the (black box) algorithms that influence it.

As is true with most writing, in simply looking at the product, the thinking behind the decisions made during composition is unclear to an assessor. If the reader makes assumptions, those assumptions may be incorrect. As Neal (2011) suggested, it may be useful for instructors to include a written reflection, in which the writer reflects on their writing process and decision-making, to be turned in with digital multimodal writing assignments to more fully assess elements of the domain.

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Apr 23
Christina C (Apr 23 2022 1:52PM) : Maker log guide from my course, if interested more

Adapted from CLMOOC and Anna Smith:https://docs.google.com/document/d/1lO4Lj9QATuNPiO0SBXprrkSVAre5yco6B7xc_15lE0M/edit

(We also do documentation along the way)

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May 4
Kristen T (May 04 2022 9:30PM) : Planning to steal and tweak!
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May 5
Christina C (May 05 2022 1:34PM) : Feel free! more

And please share back; would love to learn from you :)

Originality

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Apr 24
Paul A

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(Apr 24 2022 3:54PM) : Please record your spontaneous responses to paragraphs 68 - 88 when first reading them, and go back to add more more considered ideas after talking with others about the text and re-reading. [Edited] more

It would also be wonderful for future readers if you could add multimodal examples by adding images and links and embedding videos in your comments. See more.

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Since Aristotle’s time, philosophers have contemplated the idea that new ideas are simply “old ideas revived” (Else, 1957, p. 424). The long history of seeing possibilities in creating new from old suggests that originality in multimodal compositions can be defined, in part, through the concept of remixing. Originality in multimodal composition does not require a reliance on producing an absolutely original product but rather creating a product that is informed by that which already exists but is transformed in a new, fresh way. Traces of what has already been produced can be seen within creative multimodal compositions, and the act of remixing helps multimodal writers to create meaning (Jocius, 2020; Smith, 2017). As such, multimodal compositions require reflection on preconceived ideas about creativity since it is in the creation of new meaning that they can be assessed for originality. In her seminal book on copyright and fair use in education, Hobbs (2010) explained that transformativeness is important in “repurposing copy-righted materials as part of the creative process” (p. 8). Without transforming the meaning and use of existing media, writers may be guilty, at minimum, of ethical violations and potentially of plagiarism and copyright infringement. Assessing originality in a remixed composition, then, requires evaluation of transformativeness. Hobbs (2019) indicated that current educational practice does not necessarily support student learning of the ethical imperative of highlighting authorship in copying and remixing material under fair use doctrine. Part of the assessment of originality in multimodal compositions, then, is to trace influences (or actual media) that have been remixed into the new, original composition. Writers should be able to articulate how their remixed piece transforms the original sources.

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Apr 13
Harriet F (Apr 13 2022 9:22PM) : Remixing and originality-- The author tries to make sense of what could be a paradox. Transformativeness?
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Christina C (Apr 23 2022 1:56PM) : I find the idea of transformation useful ... more

… and it’s really related to context – this is where to me it really overlaps with mode/meaning ss well as audience. A meme, for example, is meant to really look like another meme just with very slight changes to further its distribution and viralness.

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May 4
Christina C (May 04 2022 9:28PM) : "Seeing possibilities in creating new from old" more

I like this as a definition of remix.

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Paul A

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(Apr 27 2022 9:18PM) : So even though this domain is titled originality, the authors are quickly suggesting that remixing other things can be original too, as long as it is fresh. more

Fresh? What does that mean?

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Apr 29
Yudelka A (Apr 29 2022 4:34PM) : You don't need a brand new, fresh, never before seen idea in order to be original. more

I really like this sentence because it lets you know that you don’t need a brand new, fresh, never before seen idea in order to be original. The early philosophers believed that ideas are recycled, meaning that a new idea is an old idea that has been revived. This idea is taken into consideration even with Copyrite.

Its often seen that old ideas get tweaked or improved and end up being better. For example, cars in 1886 vs. cars that run entirely on electricity in 2022.

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Kristen T (May 03 2022 11:40AM) : An early draft of this piece cited Bahktin and heteroglossia.
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Apr 27
Samuel R (Apr 27 2022 9:17PM) : Remixing is essential
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Christina C (Apr 23 2022 1:54PM) : This is a provocative sentence and pushes on our definition of creativity itself.
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Paul A

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(Apr 27 2022 9:19PM) : Yeah, I think we are getting somewhere here, but so much seems to be in the eyes of the beholder. What if I'm not aware of how much is being remixed?
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Kristen T (May 03 2022 11:40AM) : If you are the author, shouldn't you be aware?
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Christina C (May 05 2022 1:35PM) : I think this is a good point more

Which again, requires conversation with the maker.

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Apr 27
Samuel R (Apr 27 2022 9:19PM) : Dr. Hobbs, the guru of Media Literacy Education :)
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Christina C (Apr 23 2022 1:57PM) : I think what is being said here ... more

… is that under the premise “Fair use” in classrooms, not enough attention is brought to the complications of creative reuse, remix and attribution.

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Apr 29
Marina L (Apr 29 2022 4:30PM) : This is an essential part of digital citizenship and crucial to add into our instruction and assessment measures to support our students' understanding on the importance of respecting the intellectual property of others.
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Marina L (Apr 29 2022 4:40PM) : Creative Commons more

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Christina C (Apr 23 2022 1:58PM) : Kristen argues in this same book ... more

… that this needs to start in the earlier grades.

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Paul A

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(Apr 27 2022 9:20PM) : Right... so self-reflection is key, right?

Assessment Implications for the Proposed Framework

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Assessing originality within multimodal text compositions requires assessors and composers to move beyond traditional conceptions of creativity and originality, given that the multimodal text may or may not have components never before presented in a text. When considering derivative elements within the multimodal text, assessors should consider the text’s transformativeness, that is, the ways in which the composer repurposed an original text in a unique, creative manner. Writers and assessors might consider the following questions:

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Apr 23
Christina C (Apr 23 2022 1:58PM) : Again, a reframe
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> In what ways does the composition embody originality as it relates to multimodal composition?

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Christina C (Apr 23 2022 1:59PM) : I still find this question actually confusing ... more

… I think it means “in what ways is this composition original” right?

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Kristen T (May 03 2022 11:41AM) : I like the way you word it!
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> From what derivative source or sources did the writer gain inspiration? What derivative source or sources did the writer use in the multimodal text?

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Christina C (Apr 23 2022 2:01PM) : Should attribution be built into this assessment?
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> How did the writer alter any texts used in a transformative way?

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Christina C (Apr 23 2022 2:00PM) : "any texts" here could be confusing more

If text still refers to linquistic modes in someones mind, then they might assume this meaning and not think about how other elements and modes are transformed.

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Christina C (Apr 23 2022 2:01PM) : Maybe it can say ... more

“any texts or media” …

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Discussions between assessors and composers should facilitate opportunities to think critically about choices made and better understand what it means to be creative and original in multimodal texts.

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Domain in Practice: Originality

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To consider the domain of originality in practice, we turn to Jenna’s (H., 2019a) project titled “The Museum of ED372’s Trip Abroad,” a virtual multimodal museum created as part of a teacher education course at a small private college in the mid-Atlantic. (Scan the code in Figure 7 with a smartphone to be directed to Jenna H.’s virtual museum.) The museum was created as part of a unit in which candidates produced a multimodal text their students could use as a mentor text for a project of their own. The candidates then created a teacher assessment guide (H., 2019b) to help fellow educators think about how to assess their students’ multimodal compositions. After studying abroad the summer prior, Jenna decided to create a virtual museum to teach about the places she visited. She created a main lobby (see Figure 8) from which visitors could move to other rooms via hyperlinks: Room of Strained Peace, Education Room, The London Room, or The Curator’s Office.

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Once visitors made their decision, they were brought to a room. The London Room (see Figure 9), for example, included a gallery of 10 images. If visitors clicked on the photograph of Jenna in a telephone booth, they were taken to another slide (see Figure 10), which provided both alphabetic text and the same image of Jenna in the telephone booth.

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First, we ask, “In what ways does the composition embody originality as it relates to multimodal composition?” Jenna’s multimodal composition lends itself to analysis through the lens of originality in several ways. Jenna used original photographs that either she or others took. In addition, she composed hyperlinked paths and wrote descriptions of the artifacts selected to highlight how she wanted her audience to move through the museum.

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Apr 13
Harriet F (Apr 13 2022 9:25PM) : original photos and hyperlinked paths both identified as indicators of originality. I wonder if they are equally original?
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Christina C (Apr 23 2022 2:03PM) : I was thinking ... more

… it just meant what did she bring to this that is original to herself, versus created by someone else. Rather than an assessment on how creative the images are themselves.

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Christina C (Apr 27 2022 9:18PM) : It does seem like a load question to start with ... more

… I tend to want to know what inspired her and what might have mentored her to get here in the first place. Then to assess how much this composition is original.

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Kristen T (May 03 2022 11:42AM) : You are getting at the point that as assessors, we need to know more from authors than we have traditionally asked of them.
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Second, we ask, “From what derivative source or sources did the writer gain inspiration or what derivative source or sources did the writer use in the multimodal text?” In Jenna’s assessment guide, she had to indicate her mentor texts, that is, the works from which she took inspiration as she composed her virtual museum. She cited two mentor texts: the Metropolitan Museum of Art’s online gallery and a YouTube video titled “Virtual Museums with Google Slides” (Lee, 2016).

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Christina C (Apr 23 2022 2:04PM) : I assume ... more

… she also used images she found online for some of this. Where do those fit in this mix?

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Christina C (Apr 27 2022 9:19PM) : This is what I'd think is important to understand first. more

If you don’t know what she is modeling or inspired by it’s hard to know what else to understand about this … in my mind.

As required for the assignment, Jenna acknowledged that she gained inspiration in myriad ways from multiple sources. One can see that the side-by-side format from the Met’s website layout mirrors the layout Jenna used in her museum. In her assessment guide, Jenna suggested that her students could use language similar to that on the Met’s website when composing their virtual museums. When one views the mentor YouTube video, one can see that the lobby design looks quite similar to Jenna’s design. In her assessment guide, Jenna discussed how students could learn about using links, setting up an exhibit, and having a curator’s office.

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Finally, we ask, “How did the writer alter any texts used in a transformative way?” Jenna’s decision to place her title “The Museum of ED 352’s Trip Abroad” (see Figure 11) on top of an original image exhibits transformation. It is important to note that, in post-assignment conversations, Jenna suggested this cover photo and others were found on Google. Whereas her text does include some original photos (e.g., those taken by her and put into frames found online via Google slides), other photos (e.g., the cover slide) came from a Google search.

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Christina C (Apr 23 2022 2:05PM) : Here it is more

Okay, so this makes me want to look at attribution even more in this context.

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Had the idea of transforming texts been more of a purpose of the assignment or been made more explicit during the composition process, Jenna may have altered texts in more transformative ways. This assignment did not privilege originality in its inception or process, however, so it is not surprising that Jenna’s multimodal text does not reflect such transformation. In fact, her previous instructor, Kathryn, contacted Jenna during the writing of this article to ask questions about originality because they were not made clear within the final product or assessment guide. When particular multimodal texts lend themselves to assessing originality, teachers should engage students in conversations and reflective work on the transformative use and citation of source material.

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Christina C (Apr 23 2022 2:06PM) : Important more

Does the assignment ask for this?

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Kristen T (May 03 2022 11:43AM) : Should it?
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Christina C (May 05 2022 1:37PM) : No, not necessarily more

I don’t think it necessarily always needs to be original. I’ve been thinking recently even about the pedagogically sounds ways that copying is part of learning … this can be very true when learning in performance arts for example, yoga, etc. You start by mirroring the teacher and go from there.

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Jul 24
Stephanie M (Jul 24 2022 5:06PM) : Jennas Museum Title slide more

I think that Jenna did a great work. However, some people might have the same ideas and dosent means that one person is copying the work of others.

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Christina C (Apr 23 2022 2:08PM) : Can you still assess creativity if its not asked for? more

Hmmmm. … I think so in the frame that “everything is a remix.” But if not talked about or expected ahead, it might be a place to talk about growth?

Implications for Practice from the Interconnected Framework

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The proposed interconnected framework seeks to put the Beliefs for Integrating Technology into the English Language Arts Classroom (Bartels et al., 2019) into action by providing English teacher educators, English teachers, and composition and literacy instructors a way to think about digital multimodal composition and assessment. The framework draws from prior research in areas such as multiliteracies (New London Group, 2000), modality (Kress, 2005), audience (boyd, 2014; Marwick & boyd, 2011), and remixing (Jocius, 2020; New London Group, 2000; Smith, 2017). Whereas earlier work on developing a framework for multimodal assessment focuses on process and writer’s dispositions (Wahleithner, 2014), this proposed framework lays out domains with questions for both writers and readers/assessors to consider and seeks to be flexible for use with a variety of texts and for a variety of pedagogical purposes, demonstrating the contextual nature of multimodal composing and evaluation. In particular, English teacher educators might work with the framework to develop English teachers who see themselves as multimodal composers and who feel competent assessing their students’ multimodal compositions.

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Christina C (Apr 23 2022 2:09PM) : FYI Paul ... more

… for a variety of purposes (ie. beyond ELA included I’d say :)

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Christina C (Apr 23 2022 2:09PM) : Exactly!

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