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“We Take Nothing by Conquest, Thank God,” by Howard Zinn (1997)

Author: Howard Zinn

Zinn, Howard. “U.S. Mexico War: ‘We Take Nothing by Conquest, Thank God.’” Zinn Education Project, www.zinnedproject.org/materials/us-mexico-war-tea-party/.

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Colonel Ethan Alien Hitchcock, a professional soldier, graduate of the Military Academy, commander of the 3rd Infantry Regiment, a reader of Shakespeare, Chaucer, Hegel, Spinoza, wrote in his diary:

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Fort Jesup, La., June 30, 1845. Orders came last evening by express from Washington City directing General Taylor to move without any delay to some point on the coast near the Sabine or elsewhere, and as soon as he shall hear of the acceptance by the Texas convention of the annexation resolutions of our Congress he is immediately to proceed with his whole command to the extreme western border of Texas and take up a position on the banks of or near the Rio Grande, and he is to expel any armed force of Mexicans who may cross that river. Bliss read the orders to me fast evening hastily at tattoo. I have scarcely slept a wink, thinking of the needful preparations. I am now noting at reveille by candlelight and waiting the signal for muster.. . . Violence leads to violence, and if this movement of ours does not lead to others and to bloodshed, I am much mistaken.

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Jan 27
Vivianne L (Jan 27 2021 8:51PM) : I agree with the part that says "Violence leads to violence." This is seen throughout history that no matter what battles always lead to destruction and death.
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May 27
Guadalupe A (May 27 2021 3:20PM) : I also agree that violence leads to violence
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Jan 28
Sofia M (Jan 28 2021 1:12AM) : A lot of bloodsheds happened during the war.
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Jan 28
Rosa Z (Jan 28 2021 2:39PM) : In the battle, Colonel Ethan Alien Hitchcock had to make sure that no Mexican would cross the river for an assault. He had no idea whether or not what they were doing was correct.
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Jan 28
Rosa Z (Jan 28 2021 2:39PM) : He was not even able to sleep because he felt that there would soon be violence.
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Jan 28
Juan V (Jan 28 2021 2:45PM) : the war was brutal and lots of blood was lost during this war
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Feb 3
Allen A (Feb 03 2021 6:49AM) : Where did he keep this diary and was it everything that he wrote in it true because if so its possible that if this ended up in enemy hands then they could use this info against the US?
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Feb 3
Ritchy V (Feb 03 2021 3:17PM) : I agree that violence leads to violence and it will be an ongoing cycle.
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Feb 4
Jesusita G (Feb 04 2021 3:04PM) : the Louisiana purchase made the u.s to expand their land
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May 27
Guadalupe A (May 27 2021 3:21PM) : When they purchased Louisiana , it made the US expand
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Jan 28
Evelin R (Jan 28 2021 10:12PM) : I am surprised to learn that the US kept wanting to expand even though they already had so much.

Hitchcock was not mistaken. Jefferson’s Louisiana Purchase had doubled the territory of the United States, extending it to the Rocky Mountains. To the southwest was Mexico, which had won its independence in a revolutionary war against Spain in 1821-a large country which included Texas and what are now New Mexico, Utah, Nevada, Arizona, California, and part of Colorado. After agitation, and aid from the United States, Texas broke off from Mexico in 1836 and declared itself the “Lone Star Republic.” In 1845, the U.S. Congress brought it into the Union as a state.

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Jan 27
Emily V (Jan 27 2021 6:11PM) : The Louisiana purchase where Texas broke off from Mexico, also doubled the size of the U.S. this was when Mexico was able to gain its independence.
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Jan 27
Vivianne L (Jan 27 2021 9:05PM) : Why did the Americans feel the need to keep expanding? Is this for powerful?
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Jan 28
Sofia M (Jan 28 2021 1:19AM) : I am surprised that Jefferson bought land that expanded all that way to the Rocky mountains.
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Jan 29
Ariana O (Jan 29 2021 5:11PM) : I'm confused as to why Texas broke off from Mexico?
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Feb 3
Ritchy V (Feb 03 2021 2:39PM) : Mexico had won its independence in a revolutionary war against Spain in 1821.
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May 27
Guadalupe A (May 27 2021 3:22PM) : Why did they feel the need to keep expanding.
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Jan 27
Jesusita G (Jan 27 2021 6:59PM) : Jefferson’s Louisiana Purchase had jeferson doubled the territory of the United States, extending it to the Rocky Mountains,Mexico had a big portion of land until the u.s conquered it and became known as New Mexico, Utah, Nevada, Arizona, California, and
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Jan 28
Evelin R (Jan 28 2021 11:37PM) : I was surprised to learn that Texas was a part of Mexico.
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Feb 3
Allen A (Feb 03 2021 6:55AM) : What were the main reasons for Texas leaving Mexico and how voluntarily was their leave if it was and if it was then why do people say that it was taken?
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May 27
Guadalupe A (May 27 2021 3:23PM) : I knew that Texas, California, Arizona were part of Mexico
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In the White House now was James Polk, a Democrat, an expansionist, who, on the night of his inauguration, confided to his Secretary of the Navy that one of his main objectives was the acquisition of California. His order to General Taylor to move troops to the Rio Grande was a challenge to the Mexicans. It was not at all clear that the Rio Grande was the southern boundary of Texas, although Texas had forced the defeated Mexican general Santa Anna to say so when he was a prisoner. The traditional border between Texas and Mexico had been the Nueces River, about 150 miles to the north, and both Mexico and the United States had recognized that as the border. However, Polk, encouraging the Texans to accept annexation, had assured them he would uphold their claims to the Rio Grande.

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Jan 28
Sofia M (Jan 28 2021 1:32AM) : I am surprised to learn that Texas forced the defeat of the Mexican general because he was held captive. It's surprising because he was forced to step down.
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Jan 28
Juan V (Jan 28 2021 2:42PM) : Polk wants to challenege the Mexicans in the Rio to cross and Polk texasns to keep their land
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Feb 3
Ritchy V (Feb 03 2021 2:42PM) : One of James Polk's main objectives was the acquisition of California.
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Feb 4
Jesusita G (Feb 04 2021 3:07PM) : Polk main focus was to conquer California, he challenged the Mexicans in the Rio to cross and Polk would keep their land
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Mar 8
Rosa Z (Mar 08 2021 2:59PM) : I see that General Taylor wanted to move troops to the Rio Grande. There was a traditional border of 150 miles between Texas and Mexico called the Nueces River.
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May 27
Guadalupe A (May 27 2021 3:24PM) : Polk main focus was to take over California
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Jan 28
Evelin R (Jan 28 2021 10:17PM) : I don't understand why Polk wanted to move the borders to the Rio Grande and not let the Mexicans have their border at Nueces River even though they had so much
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Ordering troops to the Rio Grande, into territory inhabited by Mexicans, was clearly a provocation. Taylor’s army marched in parallel columns across the open prairie, scouts far ahead and on the flanks, a train of supplies following. Then, along a narrow road, through a belt of thick chaparral, they arrived, March 28, 1846, in cultivated fields and thatched-roof huts hurriedly abandoned by the Mexican occupants, who had fled across the river to the city of Matamoros. Taylor set up camp, began construction of a fort, and implanted his cannons facing the white houses of Matamoros, whose inhabitants stared curiously at the sight of an army on the banks of a quiet river.

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Jan 27
Emily V (Jan 27 2021 6:16PM) : Kames Polk was challenging the Mexicans at the Rio Grande to see if they would cross. Polk also encouraged Texans to keep their territory.
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Jan 27
Jesusita G (Jan 27 2021 7:02PM) : Kames Polk wanted to challenge the Mexicans at the Rio Grande to see if they would cross and Polk was also telling the Texans to keep their land [Edited]
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Jan 27
Vivianne L (Jan 27 2021 10:03PM) : Why was Polk obsessed with expansion? Polk was constantly trying to provoke the Mexicans to have fights to steal what they have.
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Jan 28
Sofia M (Jan 28 2021 1:41AM) : I am shocked that the Mexicans abandoned the people because they just left them like nothing.
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Jan 28
Juan V (Jan 28 2021 2:43PM) : Polk wanted to challegnge the Mexicans in the Rio Grande
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Jan 29
Ariana O (Jan 29 2021 5:16PM) : Im sure it was quite noticeable when Taylors army brought all this equipment and especially the bombs in front of the white houses of Matamoros.
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Feb 3
Ritchy V (Feb 03 2021 3:04PM) : Polk was challenging the Mexicans at the Rio Grande to see if they would cross.
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Mar 8
Rosa Z (Mar 08 2021 3:07PM) : Mexicans left without thinking it twice. I'm surprised they didn't even stay and fought for their lands. I wonder why they just left without at least try to protect what is theirs.
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May 27
Guadalupe A (May 27 2021 3:25PM) : Why was he obsessed with the expansion
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Feb 3
Allen A (Feb 03 2021 7:03AM) : how did the Mexicans on the other side of these cannons feel, did they recognize that cannons were being aimed at them?
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May 27
Guadalupe A (May 27 2021 3:26PM) : How did people feel that were in Mexico

‘Our Manifest Destiny’

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The Washington Union, a newspaper expressing the position of President Polk and the Democratic party, had spoken early in 1845 on the meaning of Texas annexation:

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Let the great measure of annexation be accomplished, and with it the questions of boundary and claims. For who can arrest the torrent that will pour onward to the West? The road to California will be open to us. Who will stay the march of our western people?

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Jan 27
Estefania H (Jan 27 2021 2:35PM) : President Polk and the Democratic already have the idea that California is all theirs and no one is going to stop them. They will claim the land and push their boundary more forward into Mexico's territory.
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Jan 27
Fabian L (Jan 27 2021 5:15PM) : Polk has the mindset of having california and they will fight for the land till they have it.
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Jan 27
Jesusita G (Jan 27 2021 7:06PM) : Polk wouldn't stop until they conquer all of California
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Jan 28
Vivianne L (Jan 28 2021 2:35PM) : What did Polk have against the Mexicans? Also, Polk words this as he is ready to start the annexation and is eager to take California.
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Jan 28
Juan V (Jan 28 2021 2:44PM) : Polk wount stop until Cali is conquered
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Jan 29
Ariana O (Jan 29 2021 5:20PM) : Polk was very eager to claim California and was making it a very big deal by putting it in newspapers and making it a big deal.
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Feb 3
Allen A (Feb 03 2021 7:10AM) : What were his intentions for expanding US soil as far as California, what had him so intrigued?
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Feb 3
Ritchy V (Feb 03 2021 3:08PM) : Polk wasn't going to stop until he conquered California.
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Feb 4
Jesusita G (Feb 04 2021 3:08PM) : Polk was willing to do anything to conquer California
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Mar 8
Rosa Z (Mar 08 2021 3:10PM) : Polk had the desire to have Cali so he went for it completely and no he has it, and he´s not going to let anyone try to take it away from him.
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May 27
Guadalupe A (May 27 2021 3:27PM) : He wouldn’t stop until he conquered California
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It was shortly after that, in the summer of 1845, that John O’Sullivan, editor of the Democratic Review, used the phrase that became famous, saying it was “Our manifest destiny to overspread the continent allotted by Providence for the free development of our yearly multiplying millions.” Yes, manifest destiny.

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Jan 28
Sofia M (Jan 28 2021 1:52AM) : I am surprised that Johny became famous for manifest destiny.
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Jan 28
Vivianne L (Jan 28 2021 2:40PM) : I learned about the Manifest Destiny in my APUSH class and this was used to obtain land from other. This allowed Americans to gain what they wanted.
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Feb 3
Allen A (Feb 03 2021 7:12AM) : What exactly was manifest destiny and why did they follow it let it guide them like puppets?
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Feb 4
Jesusita G (Feb 04 2021 3:10PM) : I'm not surprised Mexico fought back
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Mar 8
Rosa Z (Mar 08 2021 3:15PM) : I see that Jhon OSullivan was famous for manifest destiny and they all follow each letter. I don´t know really about manifest destiny but I would like to read about it.
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May 27
Guadalupe A (May 27 2021 3:27PM) : Did Mexico fight back ?
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All that was needed in the spring of 1846 was a military incident to begin the war that Polk wanted. It came in April, when General Taylor’s quartermaster, Colonel Cross, while riding up the Rio Grande, disappeared. His body was found eleven days later, his skull smashed by a heavy blow. It was assumed he had been killed by Mexican guerrillas crossing the river.

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Jan 28
Alejandro M (Jan 28 2021 1:24AM) : The incident with General Taylor's was necessary step that U.S needed to begin with the war.
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Jan 28
Sofia M (Jan 28 2021 1:56AM) : I don´t understand why they killed him like what did they gained out of it for killing him.
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Jan 28
Estefania H (Jan 28 2021 2:33PM) : The war started because a General Taylor's quartermaster was found dead in Rio Grande. He was found with his skull smashed in and the American's believed that it was a Mexican that was crossing the river. Polk used it to start the war he has been wanting.
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Jan 28
Juan V (Jan 28 2021 2:46PM) : What was the point of killing the guy
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Jan 28
Evelin R (Jan 28 2021 11:00PM) : I'm surprised to learn that the war had started because a friend of Polk died and they just Mexicans had something to do with it.
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Feb 3
Ritchy V (Feb 03 2021 2:46PM) : The war started after Colonel Cross was found dead with his skull smashed by a heavy blow.
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Feb 4
Jesusita G (Feb 04 2021 3:13PM) : they wanted to go to war once they found General Taylor's quartermaster dead in the Rio Grande.
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Mar 8
Rosa Z (Mar 08 2021 3:17PM) : The war started because Polk's friend was found dead and I don't get why he had to be killed.
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The next day (April 25), a patrol of Taylor’s soldiers was surrounded and attacked by Mexicans, and wiped out: sixteen dead, others wounded, the rest captured. Taylor sent a dispatch to Polk: “Hostilities may now be considered as commenced.”

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Jan 28
Sofia M (Jan 28 2021 1:57AM) : I am not surprised that they got attacked from Mexico because they started it first with them.
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Jan 28
Vivianne L (Jan 28 2021 2:43PM) : This is shocking in a sense as the Mexicans were the first to attack. This meaning that the Americans would start to attack to.
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Jan 29
Ariana O (Jan 29 2021 5:26PM) : I mean what was taylor expecting, for the Mexicans to just lay low and just let them take their country. In my opinion the Mexicans were doing it in self defense, not only to keep their country but to keep the rest of the people safe.
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Mar 8
Rosa Z (Mar 08 2021 3:19PM) : Mexico was defending their country and their people that way they will show them that they won´t just be sitting and watching how their country gets destroyed. Big No, they will protect what is theirs!
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Jun 2
Guadalupe A (Jun 02 2021 2:22PM) : I’m not surprised they got attacked
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Jan 28
Evelin R (Jan 28 2021 11:44PM) : I'm surprised that so many bad things happen and all because of the US now there own people are dying.
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Jan 28
Alejandro M (Jan 28 2021 1:26AM) : Mexicans was defending their nation a prove of this was that Taylor's soldiers that was killed by Mexican guerrillas.
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Feb 3
Allen A (Feb 03 2021 7:15AM) : What does he mean by “Hostilities may now be considered as commenced.”?
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May 27
Guadalupe A (May 27 2021 3:31PM) : Yeah what does he mean by that

The Mexicans had fired the first shot. But they had done what the American government wanted, according to Colonel Hitchcock, who wrote in his diary, even before those first incidents:

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Jan 27
Emily V (Jan 27 2021 6:23PM) : something I learned was that since the news spread, James Polk wanted to provide more for their territory but was later found dead. Many of the ones that found him thought a Mexican soldier did it so they attacked Mexican soldiers.
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Jan 28
Alejandro M (Jan 28 2021 1:39AM) : I'm agree with you becuase Mexican soldiers was attacked.
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Jan 27
Jesusita G (Jan 27 2021 7:20PM) : James Polk wanted to conquer more land but was found dead. the ones that found him believed that a Mexican soldier killed him so they attacked Mexican soldiers
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Jan 28
Sofia M (Jan 28 2021 2:03AM) : I am not surprised to learn that the Mexicans shot back first and the Americans wanted them to do that exactly.
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Jan 28
Estefania H (Jan 28 2021 2:37PM) : In April 25, Mexicans attacked Taylor's soldiers which was something that the United States government wanted. They wanted the Mexicans to start the war and attacks to get the lands that they (Americans) have been craving, Hitchcock stated in his diary.
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Jan 28
Juan V (Jan 28 2021 2:47PM) : Polk wanted to support fror more territory but then found dead
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Feb 3
Ritchy V (Feb 03 2021 3:01PM) : Mexicans attacked Taylor'soldiers which is what the United States government wanted.
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Mar 8
Rosa Z (Mar 08 2021 3:22PM) : They thought it was a Mexican soldier who killed Polk friend so that´s why they started to have an issue with Mexican soldiers.
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May 27
Guadalupe A (May 27 2021 3:32PM) : The. Mexican soldiers attacked Polk
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Jan 28
Evelin R (Jan 28 2021 11:50PM) : I am surprised that Mexico started. I wonder why didn't US start it if they really wanted to go to war.

I have said from the first that the United States are the aggressors. . . . We have not one particle of right to be here. … It looks as if the government sent a small force on purpose to bring on a war, so as to have a pretext for taking California and as much of this country as it chooses, for, whatever becomes of this army, there is no doubt of a war between the United States and Mexico. . .. My heart is not in this business … but, as a military man, I am bound to execute orders.

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Jan 28
Sofia M (Jan 28 2021 2:05AM) : I am not surprised that Mexico and U.S. fought in the war for land because that's how the U.S. likes to be.
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Jan 28
Vivianne L (Jan 28 2021 2:44PM) : This is interesting as because the Mexicans fired the first shot this started a war with the Americans. Then again this is what the Americans had wanted all along.
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Jan 29
Ariana O (Jan 29 2021 5:32PM) : I was taken back when some of the us solders were very much against the war but was still forced to do what was told.
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Feb 3
Allen A (Feb 03 2021 7:21AM) : The US technically took the first step in action for a war between them and Mexico by pushing them the way they were.
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Feb 3
Ritchy V (Feb 03 2021 3:21PM) : The US provoked the war in order to get Mexico to initiate it for them to justify their actions.
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Mar 8
Rosa Z (Mar 08 2021 3:24PM) : The Mexican started the war because they had to protect their country and their people so Americans wouldn't pass their space and take away what is not theirs.
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Jun 2
Guadalupe A (Jun 02 2021 2:23PM) : The US provoked it.
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Jan 27
Jesusita G (Jan 27 2021 7:27PM) : Mexican soldiers killed 16 u.s soldiers and wounded many others.the Mexicans had fired the first shot of declaring war
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Jan 28
Alejandro M (Jan 28 2021 1:42AM) : I am agree with you because Mexico fired the first shot by killing the 16 U.S soldiers.
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Jan 28
Evelin R (Jan 28 2021 11:54PM) : I am surprised that the US forces didn't even feel the war was not right.
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Jan 29
Evelin R (Jan 29 2021 12:03AM) : I'm surprised that even the US own people even knew what they were doing was wrong. [Edited]

On May 9, before news of any battles, Polk was suggesting to his cabinet a declaration of war, based on certain money claims against Mexico, and on Mexico’s recent rejection of an American negotiator named John Slidell. Polk recorded in his diary what he said to the cabinet meeting:

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Jan 28
Sofia M (Jan 28 2021 2:07AM) : I am not surprised that Mexico rejected the U.S. because of how the U.S. can get aggressive for things.
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Jan 28
Estefania H (Jan 28 2021 2:43PM) : Hitchcock didn't want to fight in a war that wasn't far, but he has to follow the orders that the military gives him. Before any battle was declared, Polk was already suggesting his cabinet to declare a war for little reasons.
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Jan 28
Juan V (Jan 28 2021 2:48PM) : I think mexico couldve resolved things but instead rejected them
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Mar 8
Rosa Z (Mar 08 2021 3:28PM) : I believe that if the USA would´ve not been causing many problems in getting more lands to expand their power all this war wouldn't even happen.
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Jun 2
Guadalupe A (Jun 02 2021 2:24PM) : I’m not surprised that Mexico rejected the US
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Jan 28
Alejandro M (Jan 28 2021 1:43AM) : At my point of view Mexico was not smart by rejecting the negotiation and resolve the war with peace.
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Feb 3
Allen A (Feb 03 2021 7:24AM) : What were they going to negotiate and what money claims.
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Jun 2
Guadalupe A (Jun 02 2021 2:25PM) : What are they going to negotiate
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I stated … that up to this time, as we knew, we had heard of no open act of aggression by the Mexican army, but that the danger was imminent that such acts would be committed. I said that in my opinion we had ample cause of war, and that it was impossible . . . that I could remain silent much longer .. . that the country was excited and impatient on the subject.. . .

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Jan 28
Sofia M (Jan 28 2021 2:10AM) : Americans decided to declare war with Mexico because they got attacked by them.
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Jan 28
Vivianne L (Jan 28 2021 7:36PM) : Here Polk says that it was necessary for them to go into battle because the Mexicans left them with no choice. It's crazy to see that Polk wanted this to happen from the start so they could start fighting.
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Jan 29
Ariana O (Jan 29 2021 5:36PM) : It gets me upset in a way because the way Polk was handling this situation and how careless he could be.
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Feb 3
Ritchy V (Feb 03 2021 4:37PM) : I was not surprised that there was no aggression by the Mexican army and that the U.S. was the cause of the war.
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Feb 4
Jesusita G (Feb 04 2021 3:16PM) : It makes me so angry to learn that Polk didn't care about Mexico or his own people because.
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Mar 8
Rosa Z (Mar 08 2021 3:29PM) : Americans also attacked Mexicans they wouldn't stand there, I see that both were protecting and fighting back.
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Jan 28
Alejandro M (Jan 28 2021 1:47AM) : Mexican army was aggressive and was ready to defend their nation.
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The country was not “excited and impatient.” But the President was. When the dispatches arrived from General Taylor telling of casualties from the Mexican attack, Polk summoned the cabinet to hear the news, and they unanimously agreed he should ask for a declaration of war. Polk’s message to Congress was indignant:

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Jan 28
Alejandro M (Jan 28 2021 1:58AM) : Due to the casualties suffered for the United States by Mexico, polk summoned the cabinet to hear the news, the US was united.
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Jan 28
Sofia M (Jan 28 2021 2:11AM) : The Americans started a meeting on the subject of going to war with Mexico.
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Jan 28
Juan V (Jan 28 2021 2:49PM) : many suffered for the US by mexico
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Jan 28
Estefania H (Jan 28 2021 2:50PM) : Polk was the only one that was inpatient and excited of a war that he was wanting between the United States and Mexico. Right when he heard about Mexico attacking, he ran and gathered the cabinet to declare war.
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Feb 3
Allen A (Feb 03 2021 7:27AM) : Who is Howard Zinn to say some of these things, where is his credibility in this, who is Howard Zinn?
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Feb 3
Ritchy V (Feb 03 2021 3:10PM) : After hearing the casualties from the Mexican attack, Polk summoned the cabinet to hear the news.
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Mar 8
Rosa Z (Mar 08 2021 3:30PM) : Many people suffered and died in the war caused by Mexicans and Americans.
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Jun 2
Guadalupe A (Jun 02 2021 2:26PM) : The Americans had a meeting and decided to go to war with Mexico
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Mexico has passed the boundary of the United States, has invaded our territory and shed American blood upon the American soil…

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Jan 27
Emily V (Jan 27 2021 6:26PM) : I learned that after the killing of James Polk there was a declaration of war towards Mexico because they assumed that they were the ones that killed Polk. There was a feud.
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Jan 28
Alejandro M (Jan 28 2021 2:05AM) : I'm agree with you the dead of polk's was the declaration of war
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Jan 28
Sofia M (Jan 28 2021 2:13AM) : I agree that going to wat with Mexicans for what they've done.
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Jan 28
Vivianne L (Jan 28 2021 7:45PM) : So many people of america did not agree with the idea of the war but after the death of Polk they had to do something. This is was the start of a war between the Americans and Mexicans. [Edited]
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Jan 29
Evelin R (Jan 29 2021 12:18AM) : It makes me so angry because they are blaming everything on Mexico but the United States started a lot and even their own people didn't agree with the war.
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Jan 29
Ariana O (Jan 29 2021 5:39PM) : I agree completely with everyone blaming Mexico and how unfair this war was.
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Feb 3
Allen A (Feb 03 2021 7:31AM) : So Polk used propaganda to create support in his actions of talking California as he did not tell the full story for there to be understanding in why Mexico did what they did.
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Mar 8
Rosa Z (Mar 08 2021 3:34PM) : Makes me furious that they're blaming everything on Mexico and that they started the war. I believe that Americans started because they're the cause that the war started, they wanted the land of Mexico so to get it they provoke them.
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Jun 2
Guadalupe A (Jun 02 2021 2:27PM) : Many people didn’t agree with the idea of war
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Congress then rushed to approve the war message. Schroeder comments: “The disciplined Democratic majority in the House responded with alacrity and high-handed efficiency to Polk’s May 11 war recommendations.” The bundles of official documents accompanying the war message, supposed to be evidence for Polk’s statement, were not examined, but were tabled immediately by the House. Debate on the bill providing volunteers and money for the war was limited to two hours, and most of this was used up reading selected portions of the tabled documents, so that barely a half-hour was left for discussion of the issues.

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Jan 28
Alejandro M (Jan 28 2021 2:11AM) : Polk's received the sufficient evidence then polk's provided money for the war.
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Jan 28
Sofia M (Jan 28 2021 2:14AM) : They´ve been discussing the issue of war with Mexico and how they will be managing it.
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Jan 28
Juan V (Jan 28 2021 2:49PM) : Issue during war and how they worked it out
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Feb 4
Jesusita G (Feb 04 2021 3:18PM) : they were discussing problems going on with the war and how they can solve the issue
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Mar 8
Rosa Z (Mar 08 2021 3:36PM) : Mexicans and Americans discussing it
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The Whig party also wanted California, but preferred to do it without war. Nevertheless, they would not deny men and money and so joined Democrats in voting overwhelmingly for the war resolution, 174 to 14. In the Senate, there was debate, but it was limited to one day, and “the tactics of stampede were there repeated,” according to historian Frederick Merk. The war measure passed, 40 to 2, Whigs joining Democrats. John Quincy Adams of Massachusetts, who originally voted with “the stubborn 14,” later voted for war appropriations.

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Jan 28
Sofia M (Jan 28 2021 2:22AM) : I am not surprised that they are taking votes on whether to go to war with Mexico or not.
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Jan 28
Vivianne L (Jan 28 2021 8:29PM) : It interesting that the Whig party was not interested in getting California without the war. Why did they feel like this?
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Jan 29
Ariana O (Jan 29 2021 5:44PM) : In my opinion it was very childish for the ¨Whig party¨ to have a VOTE to decide to go to war with Mexico, like don't you think they've had enough.
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Feb 10
Ritchy V (Feb 10 2021 3:06PM) : Whig party also wanted California but they wanted to do it without war.
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Mar 8
Rosa Z (Mar 08 2021 3:37PM) : I believe that the Americans and Mexicans should go to war so they could show the Americans they will do anything for their lands, they won´t give up on the home lands.
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Jun 2
Guadalupe A (Jun 02 2021 2:27PM) : They wanted to show up the Americans
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Abraham Lincoln of Illinois was not yet in Congress when the war began, but after his election in 1846 he had occasion to vote and speak on the war. His “spot resolutions” became famous-he challenged Polk to specify the exact spot where American blood was shed “on the American soil.” But he would not try to end the war by stopping funds for men and supplies. Speaking in the House on July 27, 1848, in support of the candidacy of General Zachary Taylor for President, he said:

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Jan 27
Emily V (Jan 27 2021 6:33PM) : Due to Polk's demands they wanted to raise a bill for volunteers and money; to support the military. this was an ongoing debate but Lincoln stepped in questioning his actions.
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Jan 28
Sofia M (Jan 28 2021 2:25AM) : I am surprised that Lincoln game his vote and speak about the war with Mexico and America which he becomes famous for.
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Jan 29
Evelin R (Jan 29 2021 12:27AM) : I am surprised to learn that Abraham Lincoln was against the war and did not agree.
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Feb 3
Ritchy V (Feb 03 2021 3:23PM) : Abraham Lincoln knew that what they were doing was unfair.
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Feb 4
Jesusita G (Feb 04 2021 3:20PM) : it surprised me that lincoln was against the war and felt what was going on was injustice
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Feb 10
Juan V (Feb 10 2021 2:39PM) : Lincoln knew what was happening was wrong
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Mar 8
Rosa Z (Mar 08 2021 3:41PM) : I am also surprised that Lincoln didn't agree about the war.
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If to say “the war was unnecessarily and unconstitutionally commenced by the President” be opposing the war, then the Whigs have very generally opposed it. … The marching an army into the midst of a peaceful Mexican settlement, frightening the inhabitants away, leaving their growing crops and other property to destruction, to you may appear a perfectly amiable, peaceful, unprovoking procedure; but it does not appear so to us. . .. But if, when the war had begun, and had become the cause of the country, the giving-of our money and our blood, in common with yours, was support of the war, then it is not true that we have always opposed the war. With few individual exceptions, you have constantly had our votes here for all the necessary supplies. …

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Jan 27
Nicole G (Jan 27 2021 11:53PM) : It is interesting that they opposed the idea of attacking the Mexican settlement, but once the war started they supported it.
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Jan 28
Alejandro M (Jan 28 2021 2:24AM) : Is interesting to know that there were oppositions.
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Jan 29
Ariana O (Jan 29 2021 5:48PM) : Its very pleasing to know that at least one person out of all these men was trying to do the right thing and have peace between the two.
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Jan 31
Vivianne L (Jan 31 2021 4:40AM) : It's interesting to see how Abraham Lincoln was against the war between America and Mexico. As well as the Whig party opposed it but why would they go through with it?
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Feb 1
Natalia N (Feb 01 2021 2:48PM) : Often times, once a war is declared it is considered unpatriotic to not agree with the funds the military needs for the war.
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Feb 3
Allen A (Feb 03 2021 7:43AM) : Who exactly is he speaking to and what does he mean by "us"?
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Feb 3
Ritchy V (Feb 03 2021 4:47PM) : It's sad how the inhabitants were forced to leave their crops and property to destruction.
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Mar 8
Rosa Z (Mar 08 2021 3:43PM) : It´s a sad situation that they had to leave their lands and go somewhere else there not comfortable with.
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Jun 2
Guadalupe A (Jun 02 2021 2:29PM) : It’s sad how they had to leave their lands and go somewhere were they aren’t comfortable
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Jan 27
Aileen Q (Jan 27 2021 8:51PM) : I'm surprised to know that a U.S. candidate running for President was defending Mexico.
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A handful of antislavery Congressmen voted against all war measures, seeing the Mexican campaign as a means of extending the southern slave territory. One of these was Joshua Giddings of Ohio, a fiery speaker, physically powerful, who called it “an aggressive, unholy, and unjust war.”

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Jan 28
Nicole G (Jan 28 2021 12:00AM) : The antislavery Congressmen had already known the U.S. just wanted more land for slaves, which is why some people from the U.S. actually did want the war.
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Jan 28
Alejandro M (Jan 28 2021 2:26AM) : why congress wanted more land for slaves?
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Jan 28
Sofia M (Jan 28 2021 2:28AM) : Slave territory had expanded and this guy named Jousha from Ohio that it was useless to go to war with Mexico.
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Feb 10
Juan V (Feb 10 2021 2:41PM) : slavery area was bigger also a guy said it was uselesss to go to war with mexico
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Mar 8
Rosa Z (Mar 08 2021 3:44PM) : A man named Joshua was useless to go to war with Mexico
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Jan 29
Evelin R (Jan 29 2021 12:32AM) : It makes me mad that they voted against the war but wanted to extend the slave territory.
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Jan 29
Evelin R (Jan 29 2021 12:37AM) : I agree that the United States had something to start the war because they really wanted to war but they just didn't want to start it.
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Jan 29
Evelin R (Jan 29 2021 12:38AM) : They just so many things that the United States wanted from Mexico.
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Jan 29
Ariana O (Jan 29 2021 5:51PM) : Its good to know that more and more people were speaking out on the US actions and intentions.
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Feb 3
Allen A (Feb 03 2021 7:45AM) : Joshua Giddings was spot on with his assumptions.
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Feb 16
Vivianne L (Feb 16 2021 10:15PM) : I agree with the United States being the aggressors as they wanted this to happen. They wanted the Mexicans to blow the first shot so they would look bad.
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Mar 8
Rosa Z (Mar 08 2021 4:42PM) : I see that the Americans are the ones who started the war, the Mexicans are just protecting themselves and the country.
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Mar 8
Rosa Z (Mar 08 2021 4:45PM) : I agree that the United states are the ones who wanted this war to begin.
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Jun 2
Guadalupe A (Jun 02 2021 2:30PM) : The United States were the ones that started the war

After Congress acted in May of 1846, there were rallies and demonstrations for the war in New York, Baltimore, Indianapolis, Philadelphia, and many other places. Thousands rushed to volunteer for the army. The poet Walt Whitman wrote in the Brooklyn Eagle in the early days of the war: “Yes: Mexico must be thoroughly chastised! . . . Let our arms now be carried with a spirit which shall teach the world that, while we are not forward for a quarrel, America knows how to crush, as well as how to expand!”

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Jan 28
Nicole G (Jan 28 2021 12:08AM) : It is sad how all the U.S. wanted to do was take their land, turning it into their own territory and wanted to hurt Mexico.
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Jan 28
Alejandro M (Jan 28 2021 2:28AM) : I am agree with you U.S wanted take land without think in the consequences.
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Jun 2
Guadalupe A (Jun 02 2021 2:30PM) : Yes it’s very sad,they didn’t care about the consequences
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Jan 28
Sofia M (Jan 28 2021 2:32AM) : A lot of Americans supported the war with Mexico and believed that they could defeat and take over their land.
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Feb 3
Allen A (Feb 03 2021 7:54AM) : To me it looks as though Polk's propaganda was working and even creating more support.
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Feb 3
Ritchy V (Feb 03 2021 4:51PM) : There were rallies and demonstrations of the war after Congress acted in May 1846.
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Feb 4
Jesusita G (Feb 04 2021 3:23PM) : many of the Americans supported the war and felt it was a good way to obtain land
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Feb 10
Juan V (Feb 10 2021 2:42PM) : Many us people thought us would win and take over mexico
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Mar 8
Rosa Z (Mar 08 2021 4:46PM) : I'm angry that when the USA wants a land they provoke they stat the problem and they blame it on others.
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Jan 27
Aileen Q (Jan 27 2021 8:55PM) : They were making it really clear that their goal was to destroy Mexico and take over their land.

Accompanying all this aggressiveness was the idea that the United States would be giving the blessings of liberty and democracy to more people. This was intermingled with ideas of racial superiority, longings for the beautiful lands of New Mexico and California, and thoughts of commercial enterprise across the Pacific. The New York Herald was saying, by 1847: “The universal Yankee nation can regenerate and disenthrall the people of Mexico in a few years; and we believe it is a part of our destiny to civilize that beautiful country.”

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Jan 27
Emily V (Jan 27 2021 6:38PM) : Something I found interesting was that Polk did it to gain more power especially since slavery was still going on. Since Lincoln argued that this would cause unnecessary violence they had two sides to go by.
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Jan 29
Ariana O (Jan 29 2021 5:58PM) : I wonder if people were puzzled on which side to chose, Lincoln or Polk?
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Feb 16
Vivianne L (Feb 16 2021 11:11PM) : It is crazy to thing to see the Americans had made people believe that it was necessary for them to have the land. I can't believe this worked.
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Mar 8
Rosa Z (Mar 08 2021 4:47PM) : To gain power he needed to take away the land so he had to began the war.
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Jun 2
Guadalupe A (Jun 02 2021 2:31PM) : Yes in order to have power they had to have war
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Jan 27
Aileen Q (Jan 27 2021 8:58PM) : Even though they did have bad intentions could something good possible come out of this
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Jan 28
Nicole G (Jan 28 2021 2:43PM) : They were trying to find the good out of something bad, which is that they were going to expand and be able to have more people in their country.
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The Congressional Globe of February 11, 1847, reported:

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Mr. Giles, of Maryland-I take it for granted, that we shall gain territory, and must gain territory, before we shut the gates of the temple of Janus. .. . We must march from ocean to ocean. .. . We must march from Texas straight to the Pacific ocean, and be bounded only by its roaring wave…. It is the destiny of the white race, it is the destiny of the Anglo-Saxon race. .. .

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Jan 28
Yamile B (Jan 28 2021 2:34PM) : The "We must march from ocean to ocean" reminds me of the song "From Sea to Shining Sea."
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Feb 3
Allen A (Feb 03 2021 7:59AM) : They contradict their own statements by saying "We must march from ocean to ocean" and later on saying , "be bounded only by its roaring wave"?
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Feb 4
Jesusita G (Feb 04 2021 3:24PM) : I think they were overly focused on gaining territory
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Feb 10
Juan V (Feb 10 2021 2:43PM) : They are tryin to gain territory
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Feb 10
Fabian L (Feb 10 2021 3:33PM) : Their main focus is to gain territory.
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Feb 17
Vivianne L (Feb 17 2021 12:29AM) : Here they make it clear that they want more territory. I wonder why gaining more land is a sense of power?
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Mar 8
Rosa Z (Mar 08 2021 4:55PM) : "We must march from ocean to ocean." It's saying that they have conquer new and old lands that are from others making them theirs so they can expand their territory and get more power.
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Jun 2
Guadalupe A (Jun 02 2021 2:33PM) : They are trying to gain territory’s
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Jan 28
Nicole G (Jan 28 2021 2:40PM) : I wonder why it was so important to them to gain territory.
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Jan 29
Evelin R (Jan 29 2021 12:41AM) : I agree that they wanted so much territory even though they already had a lot.
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Jun 2
Guadalupe A (Jun 02 2021 2:33PM) : Why is it so important to gain those territory’s
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Jan 28
Natalia N (Jan 28 2021 2:29PM) : Cartoon more

What do you think about this cartoon?

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Jan 28
Emily V (Jan 28 2021 2:46PM) : They wanted to go and attack the Mexicans because it was their duty, then in the image, you can see Zachary Taylor on skulls (of the Mexicans) this represents him in the Mexican war.
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Jan 28
Aileen Q (Jan 28 2021 11:57PM) : I think race did play a big role because they basically said it's what they deserve for being white I think they had something against the Mexican's
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Jan 29
Evelin R (Jan 29 2021 12:45AM) : I don't really like the cartoon because it's showing how powerful he is.
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Jan 29
Evelin R (Jan 29 2021 12:47AM) : I also think it's symbolizing the death of people.
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Jan 29
Ariana O (Jan 29 2021 6:02PM) : I personally don't like the cartoon because to me its saying that he was better than these people that he killed and just overall inappropriate.
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Feb 3
Allen A (Feb 03 2021 8:01AM) : Isn't this image something that Taylor would dislike since he felt is was wrong to do such.
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Feb 10
Ritchy V (Feb 10 2021 2:56PM) : I think the skulls in the image represent the deaths of the Mexicans and Zachary Taylor sits on top to show that he is more powerful.
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Mar 8
Rosa Z (Mar 08 2021 4:59PM) : They wanted to attack all the lands and take their property so their power can grow bigger.
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Jun 2
Guadalupe A (Jun 02 2021 2:34PM) : I don’t like the cartoon because it shows how powerful he is

Anti-War Sentiment

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Jan 28
Yamile B (Jan 28 2021 2:37PM) : I think the picture symbolizes that death and aggressiveness were taken to the extreme to expand the U.S.
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Jan 29
Alejandro M (Jan 29 2021 6:37PM) : I´m agree with you because the skulls represents the deaths of the fallen.
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Jan 29
Aileen Q (Jan 29 2021 12:02AM) : I think the picture shows how the war was the death of many people
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Mar 8
Rosa Z (Mar 08 2021 5:02PM) : I agree with you all that the skulls symbolize that the death of the fallen and the soldier on top is the USA that defeated the other lands and gained more power.
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The American Anti-Slavery Society, on the other hand, said the war was “waged solely for the detestable and horrible purpose of extending and perpetuating American slavery throughout the vast territory of Mexico.” A twenty-seven-year-old Boston poet and abolitionist, James Russell Lowell, began writing satirical poems in the Boston Courier (they were later collected as the Biglow Papers). In them, a New England farmer, Hosea Biglow, spoke, in his own dialect, on the war:

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Feb 4
Estefania H (Feb 04 2021 2:45PM) : The war was even addressed around the world that even even a farmer in New England couldn't hold back and had the lead to talking about the war.
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Feb 4
Ritchy V (Feb 04 2021 3:45PM) : American Anti-Slavery Society believed that the purpose of the war was that the U.S wanted to gain territory to expand slavery.
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Feb 17
Vivianne L (Feb 17 2021 12:43AM) : The people of America who were against slavery believed this was a plan to extend slavery. It would kind of make sense since America was heavily slave dependent.
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Jan 28
Nicole G (Jan 28 2021 2:46PM) : They all had different opinions, people who were anti-slavery believed it was just a way to get more slaves, but other people who wanted the war believed it was to give liberty and democracy to more people.
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Jan 29
Ariana O (Jan 29 2021 6:07PM) : I completely agree with this because it really all came down to who supported slavery and who didn't.
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Jan 29
Alejandro M (Jan 29 2021 6:51PM) : I´m agree with you becuase the people that came down or that was supporters of slavery.
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Feb 3
Emily V (Feb 03 2021 4:50PM) : I agree with what you said because there was a war between whether or not there should be slaves.
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Feb 5
Allen A (Feb 05 2021 6:32AM) : What were all the reasons for this belief? Was it because of who the leaders in charge of this conquest were? Or because of the states had a goal with the sol intent on lengthening the extent of slavery?
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Ez fer war, I call it murder,-

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Jan 28
Yamile B (Jan 28 2021 2:43PM) : Those that were against the war were aware of the reason behind it, they knew it was solely to have more slave states spread across the U.S.
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Jan 29
Alejandro M (Jan 29 2021 6:55PM) : This is right becuase in a war do not exist good and bad.
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There you hev it plain an’ flat;
I don’t want to go no furder

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Jan 28
Nicole G (Jan 28 2021 2:49PM) : His view is the same as the Anti-Slavery Society because they both oppose the war with Mexico.
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Jan 29
Alejandro M (Jan 29 2021 7:04PM) : This could be taken as a way of saying no more war.
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Feb 5
Allen A (Feb 05 2021 6:38AM) : I agree with you as he says, "I don’t want to go no furder" implying for an end of the war.
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Mar 8
Rosa Z (Mar 08 2021 5:05PM) : I also agree that it mean he wants to put an end to it and no more wars, no problems.
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Feb 17
Vivianne L (Feb 17 2021 1:32AM) : It seems as if they are trying to say no more war.
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Than my Testyment fer that. . . .
They may talk o’ Freedom’s airy

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Jan 28
Yamile B (Jan 28 2021 4:58PM) : I think the farmer is saying that the Americans are telling the people that they will grant them all liberty after the war.
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Jan 29
Alejandro M (Jan 29 2021 7:05PM) : I am agree with you becuase the farmers they promised more than they could grant
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Feb 5
Allen A (Feb 05 2021 6:42AM) : I agree with you as he says, "They may talk o’ Freedom’s airy", he is likely talking about Polk and other leaders when he says, "they" to make an excuse for the war they are starting, in order to create support in their conquest.
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Mar 8
Rosa Z (Mar 08 2021 5:08PM) : I agree people promised put their promises fade away and forget about it and then we the people don't receive what he grant us.
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Tell they’er pupple in the face,-
It’s a grand gret cemetary

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Jan 29
Alejandro M (Jan 29 2021 7:06PM) : this could be taken as all the fallen soldiers during the conflict.
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Feb 4
Estefania H (Feb 04 2021 2:49PM) : He is saying that the war is actually just a excuse to murder everyone that gets in the United States way of getting land.
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Per the barthrights of our race;
They jest want this Californy

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Jan 28
Nicole G (Jan 28 2021 2:51PM) : It is not surprising that a lot of people realized how the U.S. wanted California because of the way they always talked about how they needed to expand their country.
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Jan 29
Alejandro M (Jan 29 2021 7:07PM) : I agree with you since the US only wanted more territory that represented more power
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Jan 28
Yamile B (Jan 28 2021 5:01PM) : I think he's saying that the Americans are just lying to the people because all they want is to seize California from Mexico to expand.
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Feb 4
Jesusita G (Feb 04 2021 3:28PM) : they just wanted more power and more land for slaves
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Feb 12
Ritchy V (Feb 12 2021 5:00PM) : I agree they just wanted more power and more land for slaves.