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EDU 807 Master - Week 2 - Triple E Framework - Summer 2018 - Group 1

Triple E Framework

About the Triple E Framework

Created by Dr. Liz Kolb, University of Michigan

http://www.tripleeframework.com/​

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What is the Triple E?

The Triple E Framework attempts to define what it should look like, sound like and feel like to integrate technology tools into teaching in order to meet and exceed learning goals.

The framework is based on three levels, Engagement in learning goals, Enhancementof learning goals, and Extension of learning goals.

While these terms are often used interchangeably, they are distinct and different.

The Triple E Framework defines each term and show examples of what makes each one unique and measurable.

The Triple E Framework is based on a considerable amount of research about what works and does not work when it comes to technology in learning.

In particular it emphasizes...

  • Pragmatism: Active, social, creative, and authentic learning (Dewey, 1897)
  • Focus on the learning goals (Linnenbrink &Pintrich, 2003)
  • The importance of time-on-task active engagement (Wartella, 2015)
  • The quality of technology use rather than quantity (Wenglinsky, 2006; Wenglinsky, 2008)
  • Technology itself does not lead to positive effects in student learning but can be an ‘intellectual and social amplifier’ which can help make good schools better but also can increase problems at less successful schools when not implemented strategically. (Warschauer, 2006)
  • The type of use--avoiding "drill and practice" which can have negative effects on learning outcomes and integrating more real world problem-solving and creating (Vaala et al., 2015)
  • Helping students connect existing knowledge with new knowledge (Wartella, 2015)
  • Co-use of technology devices and software (Darling-Hammond et al., 2014)
  • Social aspect of learning through technology tools (Vaala et al., 2015; Guernsey, 2012)
  • Value-added strategies such as promoting student self-reflection, self-assessment, and self-explanation (Means et al. 2009)

Read more about the research and links here

The Triple E Framework was developed in 2011 by Professor Liz Kolb at the University of Michigan, School of Education. The Triple E was created to fill a gap that has been pervasive in educational technologies---How to effectively integrate technology tools in K-12 learning so they have a positive impact on student achievement and learning outcomes.

WHY Triple E? The research on technology and learning over the past decade is fairly clear, technology should be integrated based on what we already know about good teaching and pedagogical practices. Dating back to the late 19th century, the foundation of current teaching practices is based on the work of pragmatism. Pragmatists like John Dewey (1897) pushed for learning to be embedded in the student's authentic everyday lives, socially constructed knowledge, active/hands-on learning and full of choice. Since the early 1990s Research has found that educational technology with a "drill and practice" approach often has no effects on learning or cognition. Yet, most technology tools created for education are still drill and practice and in the lower-order of Blooms Taxonomy.

Despite media often claiming a new piece of technology as a way to "revolutionize" learning, that is almost never the case. The Triple E framework takes this fallacy of technology as the magic bullet learning into account, and allows teachers to become critical consumers of making mindful choices around technology tools in their teaching. It is a simple framework, based on research, that helps educators create lessons that allow students to use technology to meet and add value to learning goals as active, social, creative learners, in authentic ways.

How Triple E is Different than other Tech Integration Models
Some educators tend to be haphazard with technology tools, often trying new hardware or software because it's shiny or new, dismissing older technologies with an assumption that older=poor technology use. Today, few educators would argue that technology is a TOOL to help students reach learning goals. So how do educators measure a tools ability to help students reach learning goals? There are a number of frameworks that teachers use for integrating technology (SAMR, ADDIE, TIMS, TPACK), while all of them have benefits, none directly focus on how technology helps students achieve learning goals. Most frameworks focus on how technology substitutes for traditional tools or if the technology use is creative, but not if the tools were able to enhance or extend the learning goals. As the U.S. has become focused on standards (CCSS, NEXTGEN...etc) and standardizing learning, making sure that students are using their time to meet learning goals is even more vital when integrating technology. This is where the Triple E Framework can fill this void.

Triple E Level 1: Engaged Learning

Engagement is a minimum standard of technology integration.

Often by putting a piece of technology in front of the students or in their hands, they become interested or "engaged" in the activity.

However, we can look a little more deeply at engagement by considering if the technology is not just capturing the interest of the student, but if it is actually engaging them actively in the content (not just the bells and whistles of the software).

It is important to look for "time on task" engagement.

In addition, engagement should include social or co-use of the technology tool rather than isolated learning with a tool.

Students should be working together through the tool (eg...synchronous collaboration) or with the tool (eg...in pairs or groups with a device).

Below are three questions to ask when measuring for engagement in learning goals through a technology tool.

The technology tool helps students engage in the learning goals

  1. Does the technology allow students to focus on the task of the assignment or activity with less distraction?
  2. Does the technology motivate students to start the learning process?
  3. Does the technology cause a shift in the behavior of the students, where they move from passive to active social learners (co-use)?

Research to Support Active Engagement

​Engagement in technology-enhanced lessons does not necessarily correlating with achievement.

  • Studies on engagement uncovered that while students may be physically present and appear to be actively involved in using the technology tools, in reality they might still be cognitively disengaged from the learning goals (Linnenbrink &Piintrich, 2003).

Create an environment of active time-on-task learning (learn more about time-on-task engagement)

  • The tool should help focus student’s attention on the learning goals and the task at hand and not distract from it (Wartella, 2015).
  • Active learning is when students are actively focused on the learning goals and not just “busy” doing what looks like learning. “active learning occurs when children are “minds-on”—that is, engaged in thinking, reflecting, and effortful mental activity…swiping, tapping, and physically engaging with an app is not the same as “minds-on” activity. “ Ellen Wartella (2015)

Creating an environment of co-use (social)

  • A recent report by the Joan Ganz Cooney Center (Vassy et al., 2015) emphasized the importance of social in learning with technology devices for children.
  • Researchers have promoted the ability to connect with others through media or while using media together as key ways children deepen their learning (e.g., Hirsh-Pasek et al., 2015; Guernsey,2012; Takeuchi & Stevens, 2011).
  • “joint media engagement, and socially interactive learning more generally, offer young children an environment that can help them learn through the Vygotskian notion of scaffolding, or extending children’s learning beyond what they would learn left on their own.” Ellen Wartella (2015)

Engagement Checklist

  1. Does the technology allow students to focus on the task of the assignment or activity with less distraction? Students are focused on the task because the software is helping them create the code that represents their content learning goals (characterization, setting, plot..etc). There are no games or rewards at the end of using the software that distract from the process of learning.
  2. Does the technology motivate students to start the learning process? Students are interested to connect their code to their complex novel. They are not just "swiping through" their iPad, rather they are carefully planning a code that is representative of their goal so they can see the physical results in the programmable ball that moves.
  3. Does the technology cause a shift in the behavior of the students, where they move from passive to active social learners (co-use)?Students are working in groups co-using the devices (rather than 1 device per child). Collaboration and constructing knowledge together.

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Triple E Level 2: Enhanced Learning

Technology can create opportunities for students to move beyond engagement in content, where the technology may simply be replacing a traditional method of instruction, but it is not actually doing anything different than the traditional method was doing.

We call this the "value-added" aspect of technology.

Value-added enhancement of learning through technology is when the tool is somehow aiding, assisting, scaffolding learning in a way that could not easily be done with traditional methods.

This is the level where learning can become personalized and more relatable to the learner.

This is when technology is really starting to change how learning occurs to make it more meaningful to the learner.

Below are three questions that should be asked when measuring for enhancement of learning through technology tools.

  1. Does the technology tool aid students in developing or demonstrating a more sophisticated understanding of the content? (creates opportunities for creation/production over consumption)
  2. Does the technology create scaffolds to make it easier to understand concepts or ideas?
  3. Does the technology create paths for students to demonstrate their understanding of the learning goals in a way that they could not do with traditional tools?

Research to Support Enhanced Learning

Application Use Should Avoid "Drill and Practice"

  • "Drill and practice" software has not been successful in showing positive achievements for student learning outcomes (Wenglinsky, 1998).

Encourage use of technology to help students explore, create and problem-solve

  • Digital technology use for creating and exploring rather than Drill and Practice, have been found to positively effect student achievement while drill and practice has had negative effects on student achievement scores (National Association of Educational Progress, NAEP via Wenglinsky, 2006).
  • Supporting or scaffolding technology that creates opportunities for children deepen their learning through social use (e.g., Hirsh-Pasek et al., 2015; Guernsey,2012; Takeuchi & Stevens, 2011).
  • Value-added strategies such as promoting student self-reflection, self-assessment, and self-explanation through technology can enhance learning outcomes (Means et al. 2009).

Encourage Quality over Quantity

  • Studies are finding that the quality of work done with computers is much more important to determining student achievement than the quantity of time spent with devices (Wenglinsky, 2006).

Enhancement Checklist

  1. Does the technology tool aid students in developing or demonstrating a more sophisticated understanding of the content? (creates opportunities for creation/production over consumption) By students using technology to research their road trip (using authentic websites to reserve hotels, pay for meals, gas...etc), they are able to assess their understanding of rates, proportions, percents in mathematics with authentic data that connects to the real world (rather than a worksheet). They are using their higher order thinking cognitive skills of analysis, creativity and evaluation.
  2. Does the technology create scaffolds to make it easier to understand concepts or ideas? The students were able to use technology to better see and experience the connections between math, geography, and social studies in everyday life. They are no longer isolated workbooks or class activities.
  3. Does the technology create paths for students to demonstrate their understanding of the learning goals in a way that they could not do with traditional tools? There was a lot of choice available because the students could select where to go, what websites and digital resources to use to help aid in their development of the trip. Creation, critical thinking, and construction were all important skills that were enhanced with the aid of technology tools.

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Triple E Level 3: Extended Learning

Educators are always looking for ways to connect student learning to the authentic world.

If technology can somehow aid or enhance the ability to create these real-world connections, than learning is being extended outside of the classroom walls and into student's everyday lives.

In addition, another piece of extension are non-content related skills (often called "soft skills").

In the digital age, educators are often looking to help their students to start developing grit and P21 skills, that many employers are asking for.

In order to measure if technology tools are extending learning goals, the following questions can be used for analysis.

  1. Does the technology create opportunities for students to learn outside of their typical school day?
  2. Does the technology create a bridge between school learning and everyday life experiences?
  3. Does the technology allow students to build skills, that they can use in their everyday lives?

Research that Supports Extension

Avoiding technology that only provides individual isolated content knowledge

  • Studies have found that reinforcing knowledge or giving isolated content knowledge did not lead to student achievement gains. For example secondary students using technology for content-specific tasks (such as reading or evaluating primary documents in history class) had no correlation on student achievement, but students using computers for more generic academic tasks in school had positive correlation to student achievement. (Wenglinsky, 2006)

Connecting the student's CURRENT real world with school learning

  • "Education is not a preparation for life; education is life itself." (Dewey, 1897)
  • Researchers believe that technology tools need to encourage meaningful learning, where the technology is extending the learning from student’s preexisting knowledge and helping them create new knowledge (Wartella, 2015).

Extension Checklist

  1. Does the technology create opportunities for students to learn outside of their typical school day? Students are able to connect with other students to compare and contrast their own lives with those of students in Massachusetts. They are collaborating in real time and choosing tools to help them better connect with their individual pen pals (such as Google Translator or Google Documents)
  2. Does the technology create a bridge between school learning and everyday life experiences? Students learn to use to technology to connect with other people that are different from them, learn from them and share what they know.
  3. Does the technology allow students to build skills, that they can use in their everyday lives? Students are learning to use digital tools to build positive digital footprints and make new friends.

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Karen McKinley an ELA curriculum specialist from Warren County Educational Service Center in Lebanon, Ohio shared this user friendly rubric that she designed based on the Triple E Framework.

She gave permission for other educators to use and share the chart with teachers in their districts.

Thank you Karen!

DMU Timestamp: January 02, 2017 19:32





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