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Is sex necessary? Virgin birth and opportunism in the garden by David Quammen

Author: David Quammen

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BIRDS DO IT, BEES DO IT, or so goes the tune. But the songsters, as usual, would mislead us with drastic oversimplifications. The full biological truth happens to be more eccentrically nonlibidinous. Sometimes they don’t do it, those very creatures, and get the reproductive results anyway. Bees of all species, for instance, are notable for their ability to produce offspring while doing without. Birds mostly do mate, yes, but at least one variety—the Beltsville Small White Turkey, a domestic breed out of Beltsville, Maryland—has achieved scientific renown for a similar feat. What we’re talking about here is celibate motherhood, procreation without copulation, a phenomenon that goes by the name parthenogenesis. Translated from the Greek roots: virgin birth.

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Mar 19
Yulisa Padilla (Mar 19 2019 3:07PM) : Explanatory Strategies more

He explains what parthenogenesis is by using examples.

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Mar 20
Chris Athens (Mar 20 2019 10:07AM) : Devising a Readable Plan more

The author gives a good over view of what the article will be discussing in more depth. He gives the reader a rundown of what they will be reading about.

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Mar 22
2019 Joseph Paul (Mar 22 2019 1:09PM) : Grabbing the Readers Attention more

The writer grabs the readers attention with a phrase most likely known by the reader, the birds and the bees.

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Mar 24
2019 Sophie Campbell (Mar 24 2019 10:56PM) : Grabs reader's attention more

Quammen begins with an exceptionally attention-catching phrase that most readers would quickly recognize as a reference to sex

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Mar 24
Madison Jones (Mar 24 2019 11:42PM) : Gets the reader hooked more

Most brilliant writers start off their stories by getting their reader’s attention in the first paragraph by sharing an interesting fact or so called a hook. Quammen begins his story with a hook that pulls his readers in because they are curios what else he has to say in his essay.

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Mar 25
2019 Sante Di Sera (Mar 25 2019 6:36PM) : Initial Hook to intrigue the Reader more

The author references the “birds and the bees” talk, which is commonly connotated with sex. This gives the reader a general idea of the broader subject this explanatory essay falls under.

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Mar 25
2019 Sante Di Sera (Mar 25 2019 6:48PM) : Devising a Readable Plan more

As a subject the idea of parthenogenesis might not seem interesting nor understandable. The author uses the transitions, topic sentences, and summaries to help the reader understand a pretty alien topic to the general public. It also helps to lighten up the technical terminology of the subject.

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Mar 25
2019 Sante Di Sera (Mar 25 2019 7:00PM) : Explanatory Strategies more

Early on, the author defines the main topic of the essay, helping the reader go into the essay with some context. The author also uses an array of examples scattered through the essay to help demonstrate the ideas he is talking about.

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Mar 19
Bella Coronado (Mar 19 2019 3:06PM) : The writer initially grabs the readers attention by using the funny birds and bees saying about sex. This grabs the readers attention because its taking a serious scientific topic and making it more humorous and relatable to readers.
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Mar 19
Anika Weaver (Mar 19 2019 3:08PM) : This sentence is a common saying that people use for sex. It's an easy way to grab the reader's attention so they know what's going on.
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Mar 19
Johnny Pernich (Mar 19 2019 3:11PM) : Birds and Bees do it! more

This little segment of the paragraph immediately grabs the attention of the reader because its odd to think of birds and bees having sex. Makes you want to read more.

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Mar 19
Ruby Phillips (Mar 19 2019 3:13PM) : This statement is a great start to the paper because it draws in the reader by connecting to something that is commonly known.
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Mar 19
emmanuela androulidakis (Mar 19 2019 3:26PM) : This is capitating because it is a different way of saying sex.
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Mar 20
Lindsey Morton (Mar 20 2019 9:54AM) : Relatable opener more

By starting with a well-known saying, Quammen grabs the reader’s attention and makes them feel in the loop.

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Mar 20
Jill Nelson (Mar 20 2019 10:02AM) : Engaging Readers’ Interest more

This saying engages the readers interest, because this saying is familiar to the reader. It allows the reader to connect to the article.

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Mar 20
Dr. Branigan Roy (Mar 20 2019 10:16AM) : Good more

Nice

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Mar 21
2019 Jacob Frausto (Mar 21 2019 3:43PM) : Go on. I'm interested.
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Mar 22
Oakley Hill (Mar 22 2019 2:30PM) : a humorous beginning to a essay about a dry subject, to attract the reader's attention
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Mar 22
2019 Mariah Trujillo (Mar 22 2019 2:34PM) : By using this phrase to introduce the paper, he is creatively trying to capture the audience's attention.
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Mar 24
2019 Sera Cazares (Mar 24 2019 6:16PM) : Engaging readers interest. Classic well known analogy for sex, draws people in, gives them something they are familiar with to connect to
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Mar 28
2019 Andrew Turner (Mar 28 2019 2:23PM) : The writer immediately catches the attention of the reader by referring to sexual acts in a playful form.
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Mar 25
2019 Sante Di Sera (Mar 25 2019 7:07PM) : keeping the reader engaged more

The author challenges the readers common view of what sex and reproduction look like and how they go hand in hand.

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No sentence-level conversations. Start one.
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Mar 19
Katie McGirt (Mar 19 2019 3:07PM) : Forecasting Statement-hints at where the essay is going
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Mar 19
Audrey Hendarto (Mar 19 2019 3:20PM) : The purpose of this introductory sentence is to draw people to read the rest of the article. [Edited]
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Mar 20
Clara Williamson (Mar 20 2019 10:09AM) : Opening the essay- this paragraph shows that the paper is going to be about some species being able to reproduce in different ways.
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Mar 21
2019 Mariah Trujillo (Mar 21 2019 3:43PM) : In this sentence, he introduces the correlation between sex and reproductive results. This is what the rest of the essay will be about.
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Mar 22
2019 Joseph Paul (Mar 22 2019 1:11PM) : This sentence is implemented in order to give a hint to the reader of where the essay is going.
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Mar 19
Griffin Mozdy (Mar 19 2019 3:05PM) : This sentence added to my understanding of species that reproduce without actually having sex because he provided bees as an example.
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Mar 20
Abby McGowan (Mar 20 2019 9:54AM) : Explanatory strategy more

This helps the reader better understand how Quemmens idea fits into reality.

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Mar 25
2019 Halley Valente (Mar 25 2019 9:55AM) : Explanatory strategies more

In this part of the article, he gives multiple examples of how sex is necessary. One of the examples he uses is bees.

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Mar 25
2019 Sante Di Sera (Mar 25 2019 6:38PM) : transition more

Helps to keep the flow of the essay while also keeping the attention of non-catholics, alluding to an explanation of why anyone can believe in this.

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Apr 1
Chanakya Duggineni (Apr 01 2019 8:59PM) : The author's use of examples helps readers understand the text.
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Mar 19
William Anderson (Mar 19 2019 3:06PM) : Explains different examples of animals that do parthenogenesis. It illustrates examples of this process and how the animals accomplish it. [Edited]
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Mar 19
Julissa Gonzalez (Mar 19 2019 3:08PM) : Explanatory Strategies more

Here, Quammen gives an example of how this specific species of birds do not have sex, yet they have the same results of reproductive results. He gave us an example here that goes with the idea that he is going to present.

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Mar 19
student elena justice (Mar 19 2019 3:10PM) : paraphrasing more

the author paraphrased and gave background information about his topic

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Mar 19
Grace Wise (Mar 19 2019 3:08PM) : Implies what the essay will talk about or what it will focus on.
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Mar 19
Maggie Condas (Mar 19 2019 3:10PM) : The author defines parthenogenesis and gives us the translation to make sure that the audience fully understands the topic of the essay
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Mar 19
Katelynn Smith (Mar 19 2019 3:10PM) : Forecasting statement on what the rest of the article will be about.
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Mar 20
Emma Graham (Mar 20 2019 9:55AM) : Sentences act as "road signs" to guide readers. more

Quammen uses sentences such as this one to show readers where he’s going with his essay. Doing so helps clearly communicate the information to readers.

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Mar 25
2019 Sante Di Sera (Mar 25 2019 6:56PM) : defining parthenogenesis more

Telling the reader early on what the essay will be about.

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Paragraph 1, Sentence 8 0
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Mar 20
2019 Hailey Grandy (Mar 20 2019 9:54AM) : Example of definition
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Mar 25
2019 Sante Di Sera (Mar 25 2019 6:54PM) : defining the subject more

gives the reader context to a large word they have probably never heard before. Instead of just saying parthenogenesis, he tells the reason why its called that

And you don’t have to be Catholic to believe in this one.

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Mar 19
Bella Coronado (Mar 19 2019 3:15PM) : This is a good way to engage interest. Mentioning the catholic faith allows readers to relate the concept to something that most of them are familiar with. Also breaking up the big scientific terms with this little reference re-engages readers.
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Mar 20
Dr. Branigan Roy (Mar 20 2019 9:55AM) : Comedy more

This section adds humor to the passage and makes the reader more interested.

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Mar 20
Lindsey Morton (Mar 20 2019 9:55AM) : Humor more

Quammen breaks up two large paragraphs chalk-full of big words and complex concepts with a humorous line.

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Mar 20
James Colling (Mar 20 2019 10:06AM) : This is a good use of transition, that leads us into the next explanation in an almost comedic way. It helps to keep the reader engaged instead of just throwing facts at them.
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Mar 22
2019 Miriam Smith (Mar 22 2019 9:15AM) : Engaging readers interest. [Edited] more

I’m not offended by this, but I also don’t think it’s that funny. I feel the article is really calling out an entire religion almost giving them a bad rep. I know that the Catholic church doesn’t have the most liberal view on sex, but that’s not altogether bad. Sex can have bad effects on people depending on their experiences and it isn’t for everyone. Because of this, I feel like he’s trying to gain the readers interest, but I don’t think he’s going about it in the best way.

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Mar 22
2019 Mariah Trujillo (Mar 22 2019 9:42AM) : This was a clever way for him to spark interest in the rest of the paper.
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Mar 22
2019 Jacob Frausto (Mar 22 2019 9:43AM) : A nice hook halfway through.
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Mar 23
2019 Amani Jammoul (Mar 23 2019 8:41PM) : This is an example of how one can use a transition to not only introduce the next topic, but also add some humor to an essay.
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Mar 28
2019 Andrew Turner (Mar 28 2019 2:25PM) : Coming from a Catholic school, readers of this sentence are even more engaged because it hints at something other than religion.
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Miraculous as it may seem, parthenogenesis is actually rather common throughout nature, practiced regularly or intermittently by at least some species within almost every group of animals except (for reasons still unknown) dragonflies and mammals. Reproduction by virgin females has been discovered among fishes, amphibians, birds, reptiles,* crustaceans, mollusks, ticks, the jellyfish clan, flatworms, roundworms, segmented worms; and among insects (notwithstanding those unrelentingly sexy dragonflies) it is especially favored. The order Hymenoptera, including all bees and wasps, is uniformly parthenogenetic in the manner by which males are produced: Every male honeybee is born without any genetic contribution from a father. Among the beetles, there are thirty-five different forms of parthenogenetic weevil. The African weaver ant employs parthenogenesis, as do twenty-three species of fruit fly and at least one kind of roach. Gall midges of the species Miastor metraloas are notorious for the exceptionally bizarre and grisly scenario that allows their fatherless young to see daylight: M. metraloas daughters cannibalize the mother from inside, with ruthless impatience, until her hollowed skin splits open like the door of an overcrowded nursery. But the foremost practitioners of virgin birth—their elaborate and versatile proficiency unmatched in the animal kingdom—are undoubtedly the aphids.

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Mar 19
Audrey Hendarto (Mar 19 2019 3:11PM) : This sentence transitions the narrative to describing parthenogenesis
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Mar 20
sean parent (Mar 20 2019 10:05AM) : illustrating examples more

Here the author goes through and gives examples of multiple different species that reproduce through parthenogenesis. The author is illustrating the idea of the vast number of species that do produce either regularly or intermittently by parthenogenesis.

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Mar 22
2019 Joseph Paul (Mar 22 2019 1:12PM) : There are examples made here that go in depth on topics that the writer hinted towards in the previous paragraph.
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Mar 25
2019 Halley Valente (Mar 25 2019 9:51AM) : Devisisng a readable plan more

In this section, Quammen sets forth a readable plan for his readers. He gives a main idea and brief explanation of what he will be going into more detail later on in the article.

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Mar 25
2019 Sante Di Sera (Mar 25 2019 6:39PM) : topic sentence more

the topic sentence gives a foreshadowing the the explanation of the pervasiveness of parthenogenesis in nature.

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Mar 25
2019 Sante Di Sera (Mar 25 2019 7:05PM) : Integration of Sources more

While the author doesn’t use a lot of sources, the few he does use illustrate the points he is trying to demonstrate. The author seems to have a wide understanding of the subject and doesn’t need to integrate too many sources to make his essay convincing. He weights more heavily in facts that can be confirmed by a basic search.

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Mar 25
2019 Sante Di Sera (Mar 25 2019 7:13PM) : Engaging the Reader more

I’d say the author is only partially successful in engaging the reader. The reprieves from the blocks of information are few and far between.

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Mar 28
2019 Andrew Turner (Mar 28 2019 2:28PM) : In this paragraph, the writer gives examples of what was hinted in the previous paragraphs. He gives examples of different species that reproduce via parthenogenesis.
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Apr 3
Chanakya Duggineni (Apr 03 2019 8:05PM) : A lot of information and ideas from the author; also includes examples.
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Mar 19
Christopher Clyne (Mar 19 2019 3:07PM) : Broaches the subject of the commonality of the phenomenon.
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Mar 19
Katie McGirt (Mar 19 2019 3:09PM) : Topic sentence-informs me what the paragraph is going to be about before presenting actual examples
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Mar 19
Grace Wise (Mar 19 2019 3:10PM) : Further continues on the idea of 'virgin mothers' by shifting the focus to animals and insects. It's a shift to a different topic.
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Mar 20
Clara Williamson (Mar 20 2019 9:55AM) : Introducing the paragraph- I know it will include what species do parthenogenesis.
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Mar 20
Chris Athens (Mar 20 2019 10:08AM) : Devising a Readable Plan more

The author continues to introduce the topics that he talks about later in the article.

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Mar 22
2019 Mariah Trujillo (Mar 22 2019 9:41AM) : In this sentence, he introduces the idea of parthenogenesis and gives some brief details.
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Mar 24
2019 Sophie Campbell (Mar 24 2019 10:59PM) : Devising a Readable Plan more

Seems to lead with normalizing parthenogenesis, continuing to familiarize the term to the readers

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Mar 24
Madison Jones (Mar 24 2019 11:48PM) : Devising a Readable Plan more

In the beginning of the paragraph the author continues to introduce the parthenogenesis ideas to the readers so that they can get a better understanding of the topic.

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Mar 19
Griffin Mozdy (Mar 19 2019 3:06PM) : This sentence shows how many varying species can reproduce by parthenogenesis.
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Mar 19
Anika Weaver (Mar 19 2019 3:09PM) : He uses a little bit of humor to keep the reader engaged while they read through this list.
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Mar 19
Olivia Haddadin (Mar 19 2019 3:10PM) : Illustration with examples more

This gives me the ability to picture some of the examples of species who can partake in parthenogenesis.

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Mar 19
William Anderson (Mar 19 2019 3:10PM) : These examples give more context. It makes parthenogenesis seem more common than when the reader started reading the article.
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Mar 19
Julissa Gonzalez (Mar 19 2019 3:10PM) : Explanatory Strategies more

Same here, the author is giving us many different examples of animals that take a part in parthenogenesis

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Mar 19
Katherine MacPhail (Mar 19 2019 3:11PM) : The author uses humor between facts to keep the readers engaged.
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Mar 19
student elena justice (Mar 19 2019 3:12PM) : opinion vs info more

the author does a really good job of introducing information that is a proven fact, and connecting it to his opinion. I think he did a really good job keeping the information and his opinion seperate.

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Mar 22
2019 Jacob Frausto (Mar 22 2019 9:43AM) : The natural ebb and flow of life, some would say. This sentence opens up the rest of the article's infrastructure.
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Mar 22
2019 Miriam Smith (Mar 22 2019 9:45AM) : Explanatory strategies more

This sentence is really helpful for explaining and bringing this topic into context because it adds a lot of examples of where this occurs in nature.

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Mar 19
William Anderson (Mar 19 2019 3:11PM) : Another example of parthenogenesis shows how different life forms can create new life without mating.
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Mar 20
2019 Hailey Grandy (Mar 20 2019 9:54AM) : classification
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Mar 20
madeleine gaztambide (Mar 20 2019 10:14AM) : Paraphrasing//summarizing more

The author does not use many quotations or siting within the text to integrate sources. He simply lays out the facts as if to be common knowledge. In this sentence specifically, the author paraphrases about the parthenogenesis of the African weaver and then quickly moves on.

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Mar 19
Griffin Mozdy (Mar 19 2019 3:08PM) : This sentence is helpful because not only does the "grisly" description keep the reader engaged, but it also provides an example of parthenogenesis.
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Mar 19
Anika Weaver (Mar 19 2019 3:11PM) : He uses vivid imagery and similes to relate what happens to the reader.
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Mar 19
Bella Coronado (Mar 19 2019 3:17PM) : The analogy here, while gruesome, gives the reader a vivid visual that calls their attention back to the matter of the essay. It breaks up the scientific information with an example of the broader concept.
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Mar 20
Jill Nelson (Mar 20 2019 10:08AM) : Engaging Readers’ Interest more

This is a very interesting sentence that could be written many different ways, but the author of the article was able to use word choice to paint a picture of how Gall Midges are born.

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Mar 19
Katelynn Smith (Mar 19 2019 3:12PM) : The author is letting the reader know the topic is switching to aphids.
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Mar 19
Grace Wise (Mar 19 2019 3:12PM) : Transition to a more narrowed down topic of interest but still related to the previous information and idea.
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Mar 19
Ruby Phillips (Mar 19 2019 3:15PM) : This is a great transition into the details of aphids and their unique ways.
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Mar 20
Emma Graham (Mar 20 2019 9:57AM) : Transitions are used to maintain flow. more

Quammen makes use of transitional sentences to further guide readers and maintain a sense of flow throughout the essay. Including things like transition makes information more easy to follow.

Now no sensible reader, not even one who has chosen this book, can be expected to care much, I realize, about aphid biology qua aphid biology. But there’s a larger reason for dragging you into the subject. The life cycle of these nebbishy insects, the very same that infest rosebushes and houseplants, exemplifies not only how parthenogenesis works but also, very clearly, why evolution has devised such a reproductive shortcut.

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Mar 19
emmanuela androulidakis (Mar 19 2019 3:34PM) : keeps the reader paying attention by referring to them as well as bringing up the reason as to why the piece of information was brought up.
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Mar 20
Clara Williamson (Mar 20 2019 9:57AM) : Transitional paragraph. Points out it is not that interesting, but gives an example of something that may affect the readers personally, or an example of something possibly interesting.
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Mar 22
2019 Miriam Smith (Mar 22 2019 9:40AM) : Engaging the reader more

This paragraph is a really good way to engage the reader because it breaks the fourth wall and actually includes the reader in the conversation by recognizing what they may be thinking.

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Mar 23
2019 Amani Jammoul (Mar 23 2019 9:36PM) : This paragraph is definitely a way for the author to keep the reader engaged. He directly addresses them, and assures them that he is saying all this for a reason. He reassures them that they will not be entirely bored with what comes next.
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Mar 24
2019 Sophie Campbell (Mar 24 2019 11:02PM) : Engaging the reader- By addressing the reader specifically it keeps the audience attentive to the article
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Mar 25
Madison Jones (Mar 25 2019 12:04AM) : Engaging the reader more

Paragraph four is a great example to show others how to engage readers into the topic they are trying to explain. And what I thought was interesting was the author includes the reader in the conversation therefore makes it personal and makes the reader connect with the essay.

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Apr 3
Chanakya Duggineni (Apr 03 2019 8:07PM) : Mostly about keeping the reader alert and attentive to the article. Or, engaging the reader’s interest.
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Mar 20
Dr. Branigan Roy (Mar 20 2019 9:58AM) : Relatable remark more

By relating to the reader’s possible feelings, the author helps to maintain the reader’s interest.

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Mar 20
James Colling (Mar 20 2019 10:08AM) : This introductory sentence uses a hook of self awareness by the author when he says "Now no sensible reader ... can be expected to care much" suggesting you further explore his article, so as not to be mundane.
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Mar 25
2019 Sante Di Sera (Mar 25 2019 6:40PM) : transition more

he has explained what parthenogenesis and and now this sentence helps transition the reader to the “why does this matter” portion of the essay

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Mar 28
2019 Andrew Turner (Mar 28 2019 2:30PM) : The author keeps the readers attention by reminding them that the content being read is not very interesting. He then shows the reader why it is rather important.
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Mar 19
Bella Coronado (Mar 19 2019 3:18PM) : Here the writer relates the information that was already given to the facts he's about to deliver. This way the reader, if they found the last paragraphs about aphid biology boring, are now curious about what else the author will be talking about.
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Mar 19
Christopher Clyne (Mar 19 2019 3:09PM) : This is where it would be difficult to keep reading if it weren't for the writer's guidance, especially after that heavy last paragraph. He is telling the reader why they should care and stay tuned for the rest of the reading.
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Mar 19
Griffin Mozdy (Mar 19 2019 3:11PM) : A perfect explanation for why we should care and a good segue.
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Mar 19
Grace Wise (Mar 19 2019 3:13PM) : Implication of another slight shift in topic or something that will be touched on later in the essay. [Edited]
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Mar 19
Audrey Hendarto (Mar 19 2019 3:14PM) : This sentence forecasts later another of the author's main points which was that evolution takes the most efficient route. [Edited]
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Mar 20
Emma Graham (Mar 20 2019 9:59AM) : Author explains the "why." more

Quammen presents a lot of complex information, so explaining WHY it’s important keeps readers interested and avoids confusion.

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Mar 20
Lindsey Morton (Mar 20 2019 10:07AM) : Connection to daily life more

Quammen mentions where aphids are commonly seen in our daily lives to allow the reader to visualize the insects.

First, the biographical facts. A typical aphid, which feeds entirely on plant juices tapped from the vascular system of young leaves, spends winter as an egg, dormant and protected. The egg is attached near a bud site on the new growth of, say, a poplar tree. In March, when the tree sap has begun to rise and the buds have begun to burgeon, the egg opens and an aphid hatchling appears, promptly plugging its sharp snout into the tree’s tender plumbing. This solitary individual aphid will be, necessarily, a wingless female. If she is lucky, she will become sole founder of a vast aphid population. Having sucked enough poplar sap to reach maturity, she produces (by live birth now, not egg-laying, and without benefit of a mate) daughters identical to herself. These wingless daughters also plug into the tree’s flow of sap, and they also produce wingless daughters—whose daughters produce more daughters, geometrically more, generation following generation until sometime in late spring, when crowding becomes an issue and that particular branch of that particular tree can support no more thirsty aphids. Suddenly there is a change: The next generation of daughters are born with wings. They fly off in search of a better situation.

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Mar 19
William Anderson (Mar 19 2019 3:13PM) : This paragraphs explains the biological fact of why aphids use parthenogenesis. It follows up on the claim of the paragraph before it by giving the reasons.
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Mar 19
Olivia Haddadin (Mar 19 2019 3:13PM) : Narrating a Process [Edited] more

This begins to explain parthenogenesis

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Mar 19
Katelynn Smith (Mar 19 2019 3:13PM) : Summary of information relating to parthenogenesis in aphids.
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Mar 19
Julissa Gonzalez (Mar 19 2019 3:23PM) : Explanatory Strategies more

Throughout this whole paragraph, the author is giving the reader an idea and example of how parthenogenesis works and how it continues on into its offspring.

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Mar 19
Gwendolyn Orme (Mar 19 2019 3:28PM) : Integrating sources--Paraphrasing more

This seems to be a summary in the form of paraphrasing. I would venture that he took out a lot of the difficult scientific jargon to make the scientific facts easier for the average reader.

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Mar 20
Anna Drossos (Mar 20 2019 10:03AM) : He is clearly using summary and paraphrase here. He is setting the scene and describing a typical aphid, but very briefly.
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Mar 23
2019 Mariah Trujillo (Mar 23 2019 5:06PM) : In this paragraph, he gives a very thorough overview of the concept of parthenogenesis.
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Mar 23
2019 Amani Jammoul (Mar 23 2019 9:16PM) : Based on the first sentence, we know that the author will be discussing the biographical facts of parthenogenesis. more

I would assume that in order to explain it scientifically, it would be very confusing to most. So, the author paraphrases a lot of it in order to allow the readers to understand better.

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Mar 28
2019 Andrew Turner (Mar 28 2019 2:32PM) : In this paragraph, the author goes more in depth on parthenogenesis. He shows some of the cycle of life in this section.
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Paragraph 5, Sentence 1 0
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Mar 19
Christopher Clyne (Mar 19 2019 3:11PM) : Again, a clear-cut directional clue.
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Mar 19
Bella Ingham (Mar 19 2019 3:14PM) : Using facts to give summary to what the author is teaching.
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Mar 22
2019 Mariah Trujillo (Mar 22 2019 9:43AM) : In this sentence, he reveals that the paragraph will be about the biological facts of parthenogenesis.
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Mar 22
2019 Joseph Paul (Mar 22 2019 1:13PM) : Here, there is another hint as to where the essay is proceeding.
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Mar 24
2019 Sera Cazares (Mar 24 2019 6:06PM) : An example of devising a readable plan, gives the reader a clear blueprint for different sections
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Mar 25
2019 Sante Di Sera (Mar 25 2019 6:41PM) : topic sentence more

very clear cut topic sentence laying out the contents of the paragraph.

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Mar 19
Maggie Condas (Mar 19 2019 3:12PM) : The author is going step by step through this process.
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Mar 19
Bella Ingham (Mar 19 2019 3:24PM) : Summarizing the main points on what the author wants to convey.
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Mar 20
2019 Hailey Grandy (Mar 20 2019 9:55AM) : Uses aphids as examples
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Mar 20
Abby McGowan (Mar 20 2019 9:56AM) : Explanatory strategy more

This gives some additional context into how this process takes place.

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Mar 25
Madison Jones (Mar 25 2019 12:10AM) : Explanatory strategy more

This sentence is summarizing the main points about the topics the author wants to get across by using outside context and facts to support.

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Apr 3
Chanakya Duggineni (Apr 03 2019 8:09PM) : Here the author delves into his topic about biographical facts of parthenogenesis, aphids, etc.
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Mar 20
2019 Hailey Grandy (Mar 20 2019 10:03AM) : Narrating aphid reproduction
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Mar 20
sean parent (Mar 20 2019 10:07AM) : Here the author is explaining when the first mother begins to give birth to more aphids
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Mar 19
Bella Coronado (Mar 19 2019 3:22PM) : The writer grabs the reader's attention by relaying an unexpected turn of events in the aphids life, leaving the reader confused as to how that happens and why, and grabbing attention. Now the writer can get to the point of the essay
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Mar 20
sean parent (Mar 20 2019 10:09AM) : This defines parthenogenesis and explains how more and more generations of all female are produced without a male.
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One such aviatrix lands on a herbaceous plant—a young climbing bean, say, in someone’s garden—and the pattern repeats. She plugs into the sap ducts on the underside of a new leaf, commences feasting, robbing the plant of its vital juices, and then delivers by parthenogenesis a great brood of wingless daughters. The daughters beget more daughters, those daughters beget still more, and so on, until the poor bean plant is encrusted with a dense population of these fat little sisters. Then again, neatly triggered by the crowded conditions, a generation of daughters are born with wings. Away they fly, looking for prospects, and one of them lights on, say, a sugar beet. (The switch from bean to beet is possible for our species of typical aphid, because it is not a dietary specialist committed to only one plant.) The sugar beet before long is covered, sucked upon mercilessly, victimized by a horde of mothers and nieces and granddaughters. Still not a single male aphid has appeared anywhere in the lineage.

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Mar 19
Anika Weaver (Mar 19 2019 2:14PM) : This paragraph is an example of word choice that keeps the reader interested. They create an image in the readers head that they can easily understand.
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Mar 19
William Anderson (Mar 19 2019 2:16PM) : This paragraph simply explains the process of parthenogenesis with aphids in a comedic fashion. The simplistic way of explaining the process helps the reader understand how a species can continue breeding from only one of the two genders
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Mar 24
2019 Sera Cazares (Mar 24 2019 5:09PM) : example of using appropriate explanatory strategies. A good, simple example to put the words and characteristics of parthenogenesis to a visual, imaginary example
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Mar 28
2019 Andrew Turner (Mar 28 2019 1:34PM) : In this paragraph, the author uses enthusiastic wording to keep the reader intrigued.
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Mar 19
student elena justice (Mar 19 2019 2:13PM) : info vs opinion more

the author makes the separation between the information and his opinion clearly separate but it still flows.

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Mar 20
Abby McGowan (Mar 20 2019 8:59AM) : Explanatory Strategy more

This idea helps define the process of parthenogenesis and shows the effect of this process, which is the fact that there are no male aphids in the lineage.

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Mar 21
Prof. Anthony Richardson (Mar 21 2019 10:10PM) : Readable Plan more

The author splits up the topics with techniques to keep it interesting like humor or more personal writing styles.

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Mar 19
Grace Wise (Mar 19 2019 2:16PM) : Circles back around to the point that sex isn't needed to reproduce, not even another sex is needed.
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Mar 20
Lindsey Morton (Mar 20 2019 9:09AM) : Bold statement more

By ending the paragraph with a bold and impressive statement, Quammen holds the reader’s attention.

The lurching from one plant to another continues; the alternation between wingless and winged daughters continues. Then, in September, with fresh and tender plant growth increasingly hard to find, there comes another change.

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Mar 20
Penelope Richardson (Mar 20 2019 11:09AM) : Comparison more

This is beginning to compare two different things and explore more strategies

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Mar 24
2019 Sera Cazares (Mar 24 2019 7:07PM) : Example of devising a readable plan, a good transition
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Mar 19
Bella Coronado (Mar 19 2019 4:25PM) : Grabs attention again by mentioning a change but not explaining what is going to happen. more

The readers can assume that the female aphids will find mates but the writer hasn’t explained this yet. The reader is curious to know how when and why they will find mates so continues reading. The author set this up really smart to keep readers engaged.

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Mar 28
2019 Andrew Turner (Mar 28 2019 3:35PM) : This sentence foreshadows a change that is needed in a time when fresh and tender plant growth is hard to find.

Flying daughters are born who have a different destiny: They wing back to the poplar tree, where they give birth to a crop of wingless females unlike any so far. These latest girls know the meaning of sex! Meanwhile, at long last, the starving survivors back on that final bedraggled sugar beet have brought forth a generation of males. The males too have wings. They take to the air in search of poplar trees and first love. Et voilà. The mated females lay eggs that will wait out the winter near bud sites on that poplar tree, and the circle is closed. One single aphid hatchling—call her the matriarch—in this way can give rise in the course of a year, from her own ovaries exclusively, to roughly a zillion aphids.

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Mar 19
William Anderson (Mar 19 2019 2:18PM) : This paragraph again continues to explain a new cycle of aphid reproduction, this one non-parthenogenic.
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Mar 20
Anna Drossos (Mar 20 2019 9:00AM) : This clearly took research, no one knows this off the top of their head. However, they are just reporting the facts and do not site any sources. They could have said, as reported in (the article or document) and then stated the facts.
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Mar 19
emmanuela androulidakis (Mar 19 2019 2:30PM) : Each new starting paragraph begins with new information before it continues to explain.
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Mar 28
2019 Andrew Turner (Mar 28 2019 1:37PM) : This sentence will grab any readers attention if he didn't already have it to begin with. The steady use of exciting language draws readers deeper into the text.
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Mar 19
Katie McGirt (Mar 19 2019 2:15PM) : Brief summary-goes back over the previous information to solidify it in the reader's mind.

Well and good, you say. A zillion aphids. But what’s the point of it?

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Mar 19
Katelynn Smith (Mar 19 2019 3:15PM) : Directing the conversation to the why
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Mar 19
Christopher Clyne (Mar 19 2019 3:16PM) : This is the third instance of a one-line paragraph used solely to touch base with the reader and make sure they're still reading and still interested. It changes the line of information in an engaging way.
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Mar 19
Johnny Pernich (Mar 19 2019 3:17PM) : Rhetorical Questions more

In some cases the reader might be wondering a few things and have a few questions om the topic. When the author uses Rhetorical questions in his/her writing, and that happens to be the same question the reader has, it sparks interest in the reader and they are encouraged to keep reading.

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Mar 19
emmanuela androulidakis (Mar 19 2019 3:24PM) : The question allows for the reader to think of a different perspective and question its purpose. This can possibly urge the reader to continue reading.
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Mar 20
Emma Graham (Mar 20 2019 10:01AM) : "Road sign." more

This group of sentences keeps readers on track with all of the information presented. It forecasts what’s to come in the essay to avoid confusion.

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Mar 20
Dr. Branigan Roy (Mar 20 2019 10:02AM) : Asking questions more

By asking a question that many readers may have, the author captures more interest.

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Mar 22
2019 Miriam Smith (Mar 22 2019 9:42AM) : Transition more

Asking a so what question was a good way to transition. It gets the reader thinking about the information but also thinking about how all that information is relevant before they are told how it’s relevant. This was also a good way to keep the reader engaged.

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Mar 23
2019 Mariah Trujillo (Mar 23 2019 5:07PM) : Throughout this passage, the author asks rhetorical questions as a way of keeping the audience's engagement.
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Mar 23
2019 Amani Jammoul (Mar 23 2019 8:46PM) : Quammen seems to add these short paragraphs in his essay to keep the reader engaged. They are also useful because it gives the reader a break from all those super scientific topics and allows them to read something they can understand easily.
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Mar 24
2019 Sophie Campbell (Mar 24 2019 11:04PM) : Engaging the reader more

Again, the author addresses the audience with a question which is a good way to keep their focus

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Mar 25
2019 Sante Di Sera (Mar 25 2019 6:43PM) : transition more

Up to this point the writer has droned on about what the subject is and now he is trying to tell the reader why they should care and how it applies on a wider spectrum.

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Mar 25
2019 Sante Di Sera (Mar 25 2019 7:09PM) : humor more

The author understands that the topic can be boring and pokes fun at it all while transitioning the essay to why people should care

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Mar 28
2019 Andrew Turner (Mar 28 2019 2:38PM) : He uses a number that doesn't exist to show the uncountable number of aphids in this sentence
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Mar 19
Grace Wise (Mar 19 2019 3:21PM) : Further continues the information by building on it. This constitutes the next step in the essay.
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Mar 19
Katherine MacPhail (Mar 19 2019 3:22PM) : Breaking up large paragraphs with a simple line that advances the article helps keep the readers engaged.
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Mar 20
Clara Williamson (Mar 20 2019 10:01AM) : Another transition phrase. This question perks the reader's interest and introduced the subject of the next paragraph.

The point, for aphids as for most other parthenogenetic animals, is 1) exceptionally fast reproduction that allows 2) maximal exploitation of temporary resource abundance and unstable environmental conditions, while 3) facilitating the successful colonization of unfamiliar habitats. In other words, the aphid, like the gall midge and the weaver ant and the rest of their fellow parthenogens, is by its evolved character a hasty opportunist.

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Mar 19
Julissa Gonzalez (Mar 19 2019 2:25PM) : Explanatory Examples more

This little paragraph is just giving us the pro’s of having so many aphids in the world with a little explanation after each reason. And they all tie in together.

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Mar 20
Penelope Richardson (Mar 20 2019 9:08AM) : Explanatory Strategies more

This paragraph defines the reasoning behind aphids and what they are good for.

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Mar 20
sean parent (Mar 20 2019 9:11AM) : This is an explanation of why parthenogenetic is important for these animals and why it is successful.
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Mar 22
2019 Joseph Paul (Mar 22 2019 12:15PM) : This paragraph focuses on a more detailed look at aphids. It also explains their purpose.
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Mar 24
2019 Sera Cazares (Mar 24 2019 5:11PM) : explaining cause and effect of last example, an explanatory strategy
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Mar 28
2019 Andrew Turner (Mar 28 2019 1:39PM) : This paragraph gets technical with the aphids, including the fact that they reproduce exceptionally fast
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Mar 19
Griffin Mozdy (Mar 19 2019 2:15PM) : Explains why the parthenogenetic species are so successful in terms of survival over time.
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Mar 19
William Anderson (Mar 19 2019 2:19PM) : Lists the reasons for the point of "a zillion aphids".
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Mar 19
Ruby Phillips (Mar 19 2019 2:22PM) : This sentence is a very informative sentence that shows the topics for which he is about to speak on.
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Mar 20
Abby McGowan (Mar 20 2019 9:01AM) : Explanatory Strategy more

This summarizes the relevance of this topic and gives a more concise meaning to parthenogenesis.

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Mar 20
Anna Drossos (Mar 20 2019 9:07AM) : This sentence and list uses paraphrase. They are briefly going over what has been discovered and what the point of this information was.
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Mar 23
2019 Amani Jammoul (Mar 23 2019 7:55PM) : Quammen uses the explanatory strategy of numbering off his points. This is a good way to explain things because it is easier for the reader to understand and categorize the different points the author is making.
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This is a term of science, not of abuse. Population ecologists make an illuminating distinction between what they label “equilibrium species” and “opportunistic species.” According to William Birky and John Gilbert, from a paper in the journal American Zoologist: “Equilibrium species, exemplified by many vertebrates, maintain relatively constant population sizes, in part by being adapted to reproduce, at least slowly, in most of the environmental conditions which they meet. Opportunistic species, on the other hand, show extreme population fluctuations; they are adapted to reproduce only in a relatively narrow range of conditions, but make up for this by reproducing extremely rapidly in favorable circumstances. At least in some cases, opportunistic organisms can also be categorized as colonizing organisms.” Birky and Gilbert emphasize that the potential for such rapid reproduction is “the essential evolutionary ticket for entry into the opportunistic life style.”

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Mar 19
Olivia Haddadin (Mar 19 2019 3:16PM) : Comparisons more

Helps us understand the difference between opportunistic and equilibrium species.

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Mar 19
Gwendolyn Orme (Mar 19 2019 3:20PM) : Integrating Sources Smoothly--Direct Quote [Edited] more

In this paragraph, Quammen uses a very long quote for the purpose of getting a specific definition into the piece. He wants to capture the exact wording of the definition that the journal American Zoologist. I would speculate that Quammen felt that he needed the scientific and specific definition to get the point across as clearly and accurately as possible.

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Mar 19
William Anderson (Mar 19 2019 3:21PM) : This paragraph introduces the ideas of equilibrium and opportunistic species. After presenting the ideas, the author then proceeds to define the terms for the readers to explain the differences.
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Mar 19
student elena justice (Mar 19 2019 3:15PM) : quotations more

the author utilized quotation marks to clearly state the proper name of what he was describing.

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Mar 20
2019 Hailey Grandy (Mar 20 2019 10:01AM) : Compare and contrast of equilibrium and oppurtunistic
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Mar 19
ozzie valdez (Mar 19 2019 3:19PM) : Integrating Sources more

Quamman introduces new vocabulary that isn’t that common and follows it up with an explanation that is a direct quote from someone else.

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Mar 19
Patricia Estrada (Mar 19 2019 3:24PM) : Integrating Sources more

The author proposes the vocabulary necessary to further his point. He then introduces a source that he used in order to explain such vocabulary, then he goes on explaining what the point of the quote was.

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Mar 19
Alexis DiGregorio (Mar 19 2019 3:25PM) : Quotation more

The author quotes the American Zoologist journal to help explain the difference between equilibrium species and opportunistic species.

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Mar 20
Anna Drossos (Mar 20 2019 9:55AM) : The writer integrated the source by using it when needed and introducing it with a title, authors, and quote.
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Mar 20
Skye Fredericks (Mar 20 2019 10:02AM) : This journal is quoted but then that information is used throughout the rest of the paragraph to contrast another point
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Mar 20
Abigail Runnels (Mar 20 2019 10:09AM) : Though he is quoting from a source, Quammen attempts to draw the readers attention away from the actual citation. Quammen focuses more on the content of what is presented.
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Mar 23
2019 Mariah Trujillo (Mar 23 2019 5:08PM) : In this sentence, Quamman does a very good job at quoting and citing a source that provided him with information.
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Mar 24
2019 Sera Cazares (Mar 24 2019 6:13PM) : integrates this research source into his own comparison and contrast of equilibrium species and opportunistic species. (integrating sources smoothly)
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Mar 25
2019 Sante Di Sera (Mar 25 2019 7:02PM) : Source Usage more

The author uses a quotation here to emphasize an idea, and give validity to what he is saying.

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Mar 28
2019 Andrew Turner (Mar 28 2019 2:40PM) : I would consider this sentence much too long to be included in an essay that's already a boring topic.
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Mar 19
Yulisa Padilla (Mar 19 2019 3:18PM) : Explanatory Strategies more

Opportunistic organisms are categorized as colonizing organisms. Classification is used to explain the concept.

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And parthenogenesis, in turn, is the greatest time-saving trick in the history of animal reproduction. No hours or days are wasted while a female looks for a mate; no minutes lost to the act of mating itself. The female aphid attains sexual maturity and, bang, she becomes automatically pregnant. No waiting, no courtship, no fooling around. She delivers her brood of daughters, they grow to puberty and, zap, another generation immediately. The time saved by a parthenogenetic species may seem trivial, but it is not. It adds up dizzyingly: In the same duration required for a sexually reproducing insect to complete three generations for a total of 1,200 off-spring, an aphid can progress through six generations (assuming the same maturation rate and the same number of progeny per litter) to yield an extended family of 318,000,000.

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Mar 19
William Anderson (Mar 19 2019 2:23PM) : Paragraph explains the reasoning behind this type of reproduction within the animal kingdom happened.
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Mar 19
Johnny Pernich (Mar 19 2019 2:22PM) : . more

In this paragraph I believe the author tries to change the wording of the paragraph to help the reader engage better but it isn’t very effective.

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Mar 19
Olivia Haddadin (Mar 19 2019 2:18PM) : comparison [Edited] more

Helps us visualize how many more offspring can be produced through parthenogenesis

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Mar 19
Griffin Mozdy (Mar 19 2019 2:24PM) : An explanation of the population size component of aphid reproduction with lots of implications.
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Mar 20
sean parent (Mar 20 2019 9:14AM) : Example of how successful parthenogenesis is. This helps the reader understand why this process is important.
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Mar 28
2019 Andrew Turner (Mar 28 2019 1:43PM) : In this sentence, the author starts by giving the fact of insect reproduction and shoots the fact down with the fact that aphids reproduce exponentially faster and with more offspring

Even this isn’t speedy enough for some restless opportunists. That matricidal gall midge Miastor metraloas, whose larvae feed on fleeting eruptions of fungus under the bark of trees, has developed a startling way to cut further time from the cycle of procreation. Far from waiting for a mate, M. metraloas does not even wait for maturity. When food is abundant, it is the larva, not the adult female fly, who is eaten alive from inside by her own daughters. And as those voracious daughters burst free of the husk that was their mother, each of them already contains further larval daughters taking shape ominously within its own ovaries. While the food lasts, while opportunity endures, no Miastor metraloas female can live to adulthood without dying of motherhood.

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Mar 19
William Anderson (Mar 19 2019 2:24PM) : Paragraph gives another example of this type or procreation.
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Mar 19
Katie McGirt (Mar 19 2019 2:18PM) : Transition Sentence--helps the explanation flow
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Mar 19
Grace Wise (Mar 19 2019 2:19PM) : No transition between this sentence and the next.
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Mar 19
Griffin Mozdy (Mar 19 2019 2:23PM) : This sentence explains why it is important that these flies eat a cycle of larvae.

The implicit principle behind all this nonsexual reproduction, all this hurry, is simple: Don’t pause to fix what isn’t broken. Don’t tinker with a genetic blueprint that works. Unmated female aphids, and gall midges, pass on their own genotypes virtually unaltered (except for the occasional mutation) to their daughters. Sexual reproduction, on the other hand, exists to allow genetic change. The whole purpose of joining sperm with egg is to shuffle the genes of both parents and come up with a new combination that might perhaps be more advantageous. Give the kid some potent new mix of possibilities, based on a fortuitous selection from what Mom and Pop individually had. Parthenogenetic species, during their hurried phases at least, dispense with this genetic shuffle. They stick stubbornly to the genotype that seems to be working. They produce (with certain complicated exceptions) natural clones of themselves.

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Mar 19
Grace Wise (Mar 19 2019 2:19PM) : Shifts to a completely different point but still grabs the reader.
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Mar 19
Christopher Clyne (Mar 19 2019 2:19PM) : This is a forecast for an explanation of why this phenomenon is the way it is.
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Mar 19
Anika Weaver (Mar 19 2019 2:21PM) : He uses another common saying to simplify the subject matter.
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Mar 19
Maggie Condas (Mar 19 2019 2:21PM) : The comparisons between sexual and nonsexual reproduction helps readers understand the benefits of nonsexual reproduction.
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Mar 19
Griffin Mozdy (Mar 19 2019 2:21PM) : Shows how parthenogenetic species are advanced in the sense that there is no randomized hodge-podge of genetic code and DNA from 2 possible donors; this is not the case with mammals, most notably, humans
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But what they gain thereby in reproductive rate, in great explosions of population, they lose in flexibility. They minimize their genetic variability—that is, their options. They lessen their chances of adapting to unforeseen changes of circumstance.

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Mar 20
2019 Hailey Grandy (Mar 20 2019 9:04AM) : Comparing reproduction traits
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Mar 19
Bella Ingham (Mar 19 2019 2:20PM) : A summary of the result of parthenogenesis applied to adaptation.
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Which is why more than one biologist has drawn the same conclusion as M.J.D. White: “Parthenogenetic forms seem to be frequently successful in the particular ecological niche which they occupy, but sooner or later the inherent disadvantages of their genetic systems must be expected to lead to a lack of adaptability, followed by eventual extinction, or perhaps in some cases by a return to sexuality.”

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Mar 19
Olivia Haddadin (Mar 19 2019 3:22PM) : Cause and effect more

Because of how Parthenogenesis occurs, there will be more offspring in the immediate future, but the distant future can propose problems because of lack of adaptability.

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Mar 19
Alexis DiGregorio (Mar 19 2019 3:23PM) : Quoting more

The author quotes M.J.D White to help support the conclusion.

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Mar 19
Yulisa Padilla (Mar 19 2019 3:23PM) : Explanatory Strategies more

In this paragraph, the author reports the causes and effects of Parthenogenetic forms, and states what the final outcome is.

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Mar 19
ozzie valdez (Mar 19 2019 3:24PM) : Integrating sources more

Quamman ends it all with an outside opinion that seems to be a summary of what M.J.D. White has to say. I would say that this was one of the most effective of the document because it had the best flow

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Mar 19
Gwendolyn Orme (Mar 19 2019 3:25PM) : Integrating Sources Smoothly--Direct Quote more

The author uses a direct quote for two main reasons in this section. First, he wants to add scientific credibility to what he is saying and second, he believes that it is important for the reader to get this exact wording. I think he specifically wanted to get in the part about “return[ing] to sexuality” because it bolsters his argument.

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Mar 19
student elena justice (Mar 19 2019 3:36PM) : quotations more

the author did a good job of citing the quote

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Mar 20
Anna Drossos (Mar 20 2019 9:58AM) : They seamlessly integrated the quote into the paper, buy using the quote to summarize the point that had just been made. Basically, this quote is being used to allow the reader to get an overview on the conclusion of the paper.
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Mar 20
Skye Fredericks (Mar 20 2019 10:05AM) : Again, a source is directly quoted. This quote in particular is used to summarize the information given throughout the essay and come to a conclusion.
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Mar 20
2019 Hailey Grandy (Mar 20 2019 10:05AM) : Analyzing the effects of aphid reproduction and drawing a conclusion from them by using a direct quotation [Edited]
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Mar 20
sean parent (Mar 20 2019 10:15AM) : This is explaining why sex is also important for parthenogenetic animals. Eventually at some point many of these animals have to return to sexuality to preserve a species and genes.
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Mar 20
madeleine gaztambide (Mar 20 2019 10:20AM) : Qoutations more

This paragraph holds one of the only quotations. He quotes M.J.D by comparing his conclusion with the one given. By explaining his views first, the following information is expected and therefore flows rather smoothly.

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Mar 23
2019 Amani Jammoul (Mar 23 2019 9:05PM) : This is an example of integrating sources. The author includes this direct quote to not only give the reader more information, but also to add credibility to what he is saying.
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Mar 24
2019 Sera Cazares (Mar 24 2019 6:15PM) : integrates research into his concluding paragraphs by ultimately quoting a researcher answering his own question
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Mar 24
2019 Sophie Campbell (Mar 24 2019 11:06PM) : conclusion more

concludes with a quote which solidify his claim that sex is a necessary thing

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So it is necessary, even for aphids, this thing called sex. At least intermittently. A hedge against change and oblivion. As you and I knew it must be. Otherwise, surely by now we mammals and dragonflies would have come up with something more dignified.

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Mar 19
Anika Weaver (Mar 19 2019 2:22PM) : He seems to be directly addressing the reader and brings up a subject from the first paragraph to tie the entire article together.
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Mar 20
Dr. Branigan Roy (Mar 20 2019 9:05AM) : Another humorous remark more

By ending the article on a humorous tone, the author makes his/her writing stick out in the minds of the readers.

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Mar 20
Emma Graham (Mar 20 2019 9:10AM) : Strong conclusion. more

This paragraph ties everything together, making Quammen’s writing make perfect sense. It’s the final “road sign.”

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Mar 22
2019 Jacob Frausto (Mar 22 2019 8:44AM) : This closes off the article and ties all points together. Short story: sex is needed.
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Mar 22
2019 Joseph Paul (Mar 22 2019 12:17PM) : He is talking to the reader by tying the subjects of other paragraphs together. It concludes the essay in an effective fashion.
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Paragraph 17, Sentence 1 0
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Mar 20
Anna Drossos (Mar 20 2019 9:05AM) : This sentence is a form of summarizing information. Basically it tells the reader what they should have gotten out of the article and what the point of the article was.
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DMU Timestamp: March 07, 2019 02:52

General Document Comments 0
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Mar 19
Christopher Clyne (Mar 19 2019 3:06PM) : The title and beginning part of this paragraph are all very cryptic in an attempt at attention getting. This sentence lays out what he is actually talking about.
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Mar 20
madeleine gaztambide (Mar 20 2019 10:23AM) : Paraphrasing more

Throughout the entire document, the author spits out a plethora of information without bringing attention to the fact that he had to do extensive research in order to obtain this information. His formatting makes it sound as if these facts are more like common knowledge.

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